Fluoride and Memory
THE DAMAGING EFFECTS OF FLUORIDE FOR TEETH ON THYROID
AND BRAIN, AND A CURE
This article has been modified on Dec. 2008.
By Charles Weber (I recommend that you seek a second opinion on any medical problems from competent professionals before making any substantive changes in any of your procedures.)
—-Fluoride has been added to water in the form of hexafluorosilicic acid (an industrial waste product) in the hope that it would reduce tooth decay. However it is a poison that has some serious side effects, badly affecting almost every organ in the body and does not reduce tooth decay in permanent teeth (has graphs) nor even in first teeth. Europe is only 2% fluoridated but has tooth decay similar to or less than ours. It is more poisonous than lead and only marginally less so than arsenic.
—-The side effect that is the most obvious is a discoloration of the teeth called fluorosis (includes treatments) [Pendrys]. This is inevitable if the dose of fluoride is only a little over optimum. This is very easy to happen to anyone who drinks a lot of water, say for kidney problems or for baby formula. It is also likely if someone eats or drinks food high in fluoride such as tea [Gulati], coffee, reconstituted fruit juice, grapes or raisins that have had fluoride insecticide (cryolite), dried eggs, and carbonated drinks. Fagin gives fluoride content of some foods [Fagin]. While the fluorosis effect is fairly trivial other than appearance, the cost of correcting it can be as much as $15,000. This cost should be made good by the water companies and insecticide manufacturers.
—- Fluorides cause premature aging of the human body [Leone] [Erikson].
—-A more serious effect is irreversible bone deformation [Fagin, with pictures] [Reddy] and increases of bone fractures [Orcel]. The affects on bone can mimic some of the symptoms of arthritis. Fluoride interferes with the hydroxylation of proline to hydroxyproline [Sharma]. Therefore fluoride exposure disrupts the synthesis of collagen and leads to the breakdown of collagen in bone, tendon, muscle, skin, cartilage, lungs, kidney, trachea and arteries. [Susheela and Mukerjee] – the type of damage you’d expect to see in connective tissue disorders. It will also cause damage to ligaments resembling arthritis.
—-An even more serious effect is bone cancer in young boys, but for some strange reason, not girls. During the growth spurt during 6 to 8 years the bone cancer rate is 8 times higher in boys living in fluoridated areas than in non poisoned water areas [Bassin]. Fluoride confuses the immune system and causes it to attack the body’s own tissues, and increases the tumor growth rate in cancer prone individuals [Taylor]. There is 1963 increased Incidence of Melanotic Tumors Following Treatment with Sodium Fluoride [Herskowitz]. In view of this adding fluoride to water is breaking the former Delaney amendment law prohibiting adding cancer causing chemicals to food. That law should be reestablished.
—-Proteins are kept in their three dimensional structure by weak bonds between adjacent proteins called hydrogen bonds. Emsley, et al found that fluoride disrupts this hydrogen bonding within proteins by virtue of an unusually strong bond between fluoride ion and the NH group of amides [Emsley]. In other words, it changes some associated proteins and enzymes from the exact shape they’re suppose to be in. It also reduces the ability of white blood cells to kill pathogens [Weisman].
—- Fluoride depresses Thyroid activity [Von Mundy] [Galleti]. Fluoride and bromide block the uptake and utilization of iodine in target cells [Abraham 2004]. Fluoride has been proposed to inhibit the thyroid and fluoride symptoms have many similarities to low thyroid. Children in India who had fluoride in their blood had thyroid abnormality. Fluoride has been found to cause goiter in South Africa. A government-sponsored report has concluded that levels of fluoride that people are regularly exposed to in drinking water can cause serious malfunctioning of the thyroid gland, leading to even more serious health problems. The thyroid requires l-tyrosine to make the hormone, so supplements of this amino acid may be helpful.
—- I now have to take thyroid hormone, so I have a personal reason for resenting adding this poison to my drinking water, for it is highly probable that fluoride is the reason why. As a friend of mine once said “everything is caused by something”.
—- Fluoride depletes the energy reserves and the ability of white blood cells to properly destroy foreign agents by the process of phagocytosis. As little as 0.2 ppm fluoride stimulates superoxide production in resting white blood cells, virtually abolishing phagocytosis. Even micro-molar amounts of fluoride, below 1ppm, may seriously depress the ability of white blood cells to destroy pathogenic agents [Curnette]. Fluoride inhibits antibody formation in the blood [Jain].
—-The most serious effects of all are damages to the nervous system. Fluoride synergistically with aluminum, causes nerve degeneration similar to Alzheimer’s disease. Aluminum is present in some city water, in a toothpaste tube, using aluminum pans to boil water, or drinking beverages in aluminum cans, and some baking powder. It has been found that behaviors associated with lead neurotoxicity are more frequent in communities using silicofluorides than in comparable localities that do not use these chemicals. Violent acts were up to 2 and 1/2 times higher in fluoridated communities, particularly among African Americans. He attributes this to lead levels in these criminals, which lead has its uptake enhanced by fluoride [Masters]. Rats fed amounts of fluoride similar and also slightly higher to that found in artificially fluoridated drinking water, suffered from impaired central nervous system functioning and poorer memory. There was more malaise and fatigue and significant alteration of enzyme functioning. Some researchers have concluded that there is a mechanism by which fluoride can contribute to so many neurological problems in children. Thus, links of fluoridated water to decreased intelligence in children [Lu], increased incidence of ADD and ADHD, lower cognitive ability, poorer memory and other related problems, are probably correct.
—- Varner et al found that when fluoride in water with just 1 part per million fluoride, (the amounts used for artificially fluoridated water), was used in the presence of aluminum sulfate (frequently used to improve the appearance of drinking water, present in some baking powders, and as an adjuvant in vaccines [Eisenbarth] ), the results were disastrous. Aside from brain and kidney damage, there was an eighty percent mortality rate in the animals fed doses of sodium fluoride and aluminum similar to those found in artificially fluoridated water. Animals fed the aluminum/fluoride laced water developed sparse hair and abnormal, copper-colored underlying skin which is related to premature aging. Mostly the researchers related these effects to chronic kidney failure. Further autopsy results showed serious kidney abnormalities in animals that drank water containing both sodium fluoride and aluminum fluoride. The Varner team said that “Striking parallels were seen between aluminum-induced alterations in cerebral blood vessels that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of pre-senile dementia”. Fluoride studies in rats can be indicative of a potential for motor disruption, intelligence deficits and learning disabilities in humans. Humans are exposed to plasma levels of fluoride as high as those in rat studies. Fluoride involves interruption of normal brain development. Fluoride affects the hippocampus in the brain, which integrates inputs from the environment, memory, and motivational stimuli, to produce behavioral decisions and modify memory. Experience with other developmental neurotoxicants prompts expectations that changes in behavioral functions will be comparable across species, especially humans and rats [Muellenix] Fluorides accumulate in the brain over time to reach neurologically harmful levels [Muellenix]. If you keep rodents for pets, be sure not to give them city water.
—- It is also important that pregnant women imbibe no fluoride because it damages several brain functions and hormones in the fetuses. It also alters behavior of the babies. There is an average decline of IQ of 8 points in children showing fluorosis of the teeth. Also see this site.
—-About 2 or 3% of people are especially sensitive to fluoride poisoning. Such people can not even take showers without being affected with colicky stomach and intestinal pains, severe headaches, weakness and fatigue, skin rashes, mouth ulcers, worsening of allergic conditions including wheezy breathing, blurred vision, excessive thirst and joint pains.
—- Fluoride accumulates in the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin, more than any other soft tissue in the body. The hydroxyapetite crystals in the pineal gland accumulate more fluoride than bone or teeth, up to 21,000 ppm. As a result melatonin is interfered with and this causes earlier maturation of female animals.
—-At the same time there are substances that give protection to teeth, especially while children are growing, such as vitamin D, calcium, phosphate, copper and magnesium with no adverse effects in reasonable amounts and at the same time they strengthen bone [Holick]. You should be able to get all you need of these except vitamin D from unprocessed food. There are also substances present in cashew nuts and mango fruit, anacardic acids, which is very lethal to tooth cavity gram positive bacteria [Eichbaum]. Fluoride is not more lethal to cavity bacteria than conventional mouth wash [Bibby]. Fluoride does reduce solubility of enamel in acid, but only when applied topically. Eating fluoride while teeth are forming has no affect on solubility. Therefore fluoride should NEVER be given to babies or pregnant mothers or used for formula.
—-I definitely recommend that you drink bottled water or collect rain water from a sanitary container if your tap water contains fluoride. This is especially important if you are on dialysis since the National Kidney Foundation has reported several deaths from fluoride in water. Cities should discontinue fluoridation because of the likelihood of future liability suits along with concern for their citizen’s health. At least legislators should insist that citizens be warned of the toxicity. 98% of European citizens now drink non fluoridated water. We should join them in the USA. Also when fluorinated water is used for irrigation, it poisons the soil for a long time. Fluoride is thought to be able to damage vegetation when the concentration is high enough, especially when boron is also high in the soil.
—-Iodide can be used to increase fluoride excretion. Iodide used to be very popular with the medical profession. It was called “The Universal Medicine” over 100 years ago because it was safe, effective and had widespread applications in clinical medicine for conditions that were not responding to other treatment such as metallic poisonings, as by lead and mercury, asthma, aneurism, arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, gout, goiter, syphilis, haemophilia, Bright’s disease (nephritis) and bronchitis. (scroll up) Iodide probably has many functions in the body other than creating thyroid hormone.
—-However, after World War II, misinformation about iodide resulted in medical professionals turning against iodide. As a result, iodide has been neglected in medical textbooks and vilified in endocrine publications [Abraham 2006]. This may be part of the reason why the World Health Organization estimates that 2 Billion people, 30 percent of the world’s population, suffer from iodine deficiency disorders. More than a billion people have visible goiters and 5.7 million are cretins. An estimated additional 750 million people without goiters have undiagnosed hypothyroidism [WHO], and many millions have iodine-related mental retardation. Double the excretion of fluoride takes place if 50 milligrams of iodide/iodine as Iodoral are taken daily for one month [Brownstein][Abraham 2003]. Half again as much bromide is also excreted. It has been suggested that the symptoms of iodism is from release of bromide. Another trial showed much higher increases of bromide from supplementation with iodide. This must have been because the patient had been eating much more than normal intake of bromide added to food. I do not know if it is safe to take this much Iodoral interminably and I am apprehensive about the use of elemental iodine or iodates. since it has been used to cure hyperthyroid condition [Starr][Thompson]. However the Japanese average 14 milligrams IODIDE daily from 4.5 grams of seaweed (dried?) [Nutrition Section, Bureau of Public Health], which is 50 times the amount in the USA. In some sections the Japanese average 200 milligrams per day. A much lower breast cancer rate has been attributed to this [LeMarchand][Nagata]. Women with goiters (a visible, non cancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland) owing to iodine deficiency have been found to have a three times greater incidence of breast cancer. 15% of American women get breast cancer, as opposed to 5% 30 years ago. 90% of women have fibrocystic breast disease, sometimes painful, which can be improved with 50 milligrams of KI during the inter-menstrual period [Vishniakova]. The Russian study has been replicated in the USA with similar results, but using elemental iodine.
Iodide also stimulates the immune system. Iodide has been proposed to have an affect rivaling antibiotics. It is possible that supplementation with as much as 50 milligrams of iodide per day to start would augment immunity against fungal infection, syphilis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Also see this site. Iodide also reduces the amount of insulin necessary during type I and Type II diabetes.
—- Iodide concentrations in seaweeds are as follows (milligrams. per 100 gm.); Alaria 16.6, Dulse5.2, Kelp 45.3, Laver 1.4, Hiziki 40, Arame 98-564, Kombu 193-471, Wakame 18-35, Nori .5, Rockweed 153.7, Bladderwrack 65. Potassium iodide can be purchased without a prescription from this site. The pill form contains 100 milligrams of iodide, so must be subdivided by dissolving it in a glass of water, and then drinking a portion each day. A list of wholesale suppliers of iodide is available here, although individuals may have difficulty doing business with them. Iodide is probably better than sea weed because seaweed has bromine and arsenic (22 milligrams of arsenic per 1000 grams) in it, both largely as organic compounds. Between 0.2 to 1.0 milligrams per day of arsenic is ingested by the Japanese daily. Inorganic arsenic is a risk factor for liver cancer. However hijiki seaweed has only 0.3 milligrams per 1000 grams of arsenic as arsenate, the remainder being organic, which is only mildly toxic. The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) issued advice to consumers to avoid eating seaweeds.
—-12 milligrams of iodide and iodine will also cause fluoride excretion with no adverse side effects after one month. If the body is deficient, a large percentage of iodide is retained. It is said that the retention ends when the body contains about 1500 milligrams [Abraham 2005]. It has been suggested that the only way iodide excess can produce hyperthyroid condition is if the patient has had goiter or other thyroid disease prior [Roti]. Epidemiological studies confirm that hyperthyroid is most prevalent in areas that are LOW in iodide.
—-For a forum that discusses iodide access this site. For a discussion of the affect of medications on thyroid secretion or supplementation, see this site.
—- The Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment has come out strongly in opposition to fluoridation. They maintain that decline in tooth decay is not from fluoride and that adverse effects have been underestimated.
—- Joel Kauffman has written an extensive review of the history of the political maneuvers that have foisted this poison, fluoride, on society. New hypotheses can be dangerous to the power wealth or prestige of old theory adherents [Charlton], or as Tolstoy puts it, “Most men can seldom accept even the simplest and most obvious truth if it would oblige them to admit the falsity of conclusions which they have delighted in explaining to colleagues, have proudly taught to others, and have woven thread by thread into the fabric of their lives”, So it will be difficult to get this unhealthy procedure discontinued. Laws spelling out liability and setting reasonable compensations would be very desirable. If liability were removed from those organizations that advocated it because of stupidity, they would not be reluctant to come out against it. Such a law could still preserve the legal concept of “malum in se” so that any who gave such advice for evil intent would still be susceptible.
—-If you should wish to see an extensive discussion of side effects of fluoride, see http://tompetrie.net/id6.html and Paul Connett has formed an organization devoted to getting rid of fluoride in city water and has a site giving 50 reasons for doing so. and you may see a blog devoted to persuading officials to discontinue fluoride here.
—-You can see a site that has links to information on fluoride content of water in each state here.
You may see a videotape of a dentist making a passionate plea to stop fluoride poisoning here,
You may see a list of US cities that have fluoridated water.
—-I have submitted a petition a few years ago to the FDA to make fluoride in tooth paste a prescription drug because of acute toxic effects if it is swallowed by children. The contents of a family-size tube of fluoridated toothpaste is enough to kill a 25-pound child. This petition was because fluoride ingestion from mouth rinses and dentifrices in children is extremely hazardous to biological development, life span and general health [Eriksson] [Augenstein]. Perhaps if you wrote in to support it the matter would be expedited. The address is; Dockets Management Branch, Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Room 1-23, 12420 Parklawn Dr., Rockville, MD 20857.
REFERENCES are below. Hundreds of references are also available from Second Look’s web site. “Second Look” is an organization devoted primarily to educating people about the dangers of fluoride. An organization called “Keepers of the Well” presents arguments against fluoridation.
Any information adopted in this article you must understand is used at your own risk.
A copper deficiency has been implicated in low thyroid secretion (there are many abstracts of copper reference articles in this URL). He thinks it can be implicated in too much thyroid secretion also.
See this site for evidence of a correlation between magnesium deficiency and cancer. The taurate is proposed as the best magnesium supplement. However, it probably only seems to be because the taurate no doubt has advantageous properties of its own in some circumstances. Taurine or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is an acidic chemical substance sulfonated rather than carboxylated found in high abundance in the tissues of many animals (metazoa), especially sea animals. Taurine is also found in plants, fungi, and some bacterial species, but in far less abundance. It is an amine with a sulfonic acid functional group, but it is not an amino acid in the biological sense, not being one of the twenty protein-forming compounds encoded by the universal genetic code. Small polypeptides have been identified as containing taurine, but to date there has been no report of a transfer RNA that is specifically charged with taurine [from Wikipedia]. It is essential to babies. It has been found that supplements of the amino acid, taurine, will restore the abnormal electrocardiogram present during a potassium deficiency by an unknown mechanism. This information has been used in several case histories by George Eby to control a long standing type of cardiac arrhythmia called pre atrial contractions (PACs), a benign but irritating and nerve racking heart problem, with 2,500 grams of taurine with each meal. Taurine is said to be low in the diets of vegetarians. The 2,500 milligrams recommended by the American Heart Association causes diarrhea in some people and should probably be reduced in those people. Taurine has been used for high blood pressure [Fujita], migraine headache (I suspect that less than 1000 milligrams can remove the headache caused by allergy to peanuts), high cholesterol, epilepsy, macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, liver disorders, alcoholism, and cystic fibrosis, and depression. Keep in mind that some people may have a genetic defect that limits the amount of taurine tolerated and that adequate molybdenum may desirable. Taurine may make a copper deficiency worse, based on a single case history [Brien Quirk, private communication]. This may be because taurine may be mobilizing copper and zinc into the plasma [Li]. So if you should decide to take taurine, make sure your copper intake is more than adequate, as well as your zinc.
There is a site that contains reviews of natural remedies for many diseases
There is an opioid antagonist drug called Naltrexone, which stimulates the immune system to eliminate several serious diseases, including multiple sclerosis and possibly some cancers (Naltrexone in the large 50mg size, originally manufactured by DuPont under the brand name ReVia, is now sold by Mallinckrodt as Depade and by Barr Laboratories under the generic name naltrexone), that blocks some endorphin receptors. Said blockage is thought to cause the body to temporarily secrete more endorphins, especially after midnight at night. These endorphins are thought to stimulate the immune system, and in particular to stimulate the TH-1 or type 1 antiviral response by decreased interleukin-4 and with increased gamma interferon and interleukin-2 and a simultaneous decrease of type 2 anti bacterial response [Sacerdote]. It appears to be especially effective for minimizing symptoms and retarding progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) (also see these sites hereand here and this site) and. A few doctors have had encouraging results in Crohn’s Disease (prompting Penn State College of Medicine to plan 4mth Study of Crohn’s Disease & LDN. This has now been completed with very good results [Smith JP] ) and) CFIDS, and even to some extent in cancer. Low doses of Naltrexone (LDN), 1.5 to 4.5 milligrams, at bedtime is used (timing is important, and it is important not to buy slow release forms). It is said to have no known bad side effects at those doses other than stimulate the TH-1 or type 1 antiviral response by decreased interleukin-4 and with increased gamma interferon and interleukin-2 and a simultaneous decrease of type 2 anti bacterial response [Sacerdote]. ‘Case Health – Health Success Stories’ website collects and shares patient testimony of success. On ‘Case Health’ you’ll find rave reports from quite a few patients who have submitted stories to this searchable database. The present MS Access database is cumbersome and slow – you’ll need to be patient. The button for the engine is on the left side and the key word “LDN” will access multiple LDN related stories. There is also reports from an extensive survey in this site. I think some clinical studies on Naltrexone are in order, and it should not be a prescription drug. Though side effects appear unlikely, it is not proven over longer periods. If you try it (it is a prescription medicine in the USA), it seems likely that you should discontinue if you get a bacterial infection in view of its inhibition of antibacterial response. Naltrexone is currently being used by Dr. Enlander, a New York City doctor, but with limited success for chronic fatigue syndrome using 3 to 4.5 milligram doses for CFIDS. . It is also being explored for AIDS by Dr. Bernard Bihari, 29 W 15th St. New York, NY 10011, 212) 929-4196 who is still prescribing Naltrexone for HIV/AIDS. (and currently Executive Director of the Community Research Initiative). Dr. Gale Guyer of Advanced Medical Center located in Zionsville, Indiana also is using it for cancer. Dr. Bihari has shown promising results for a large percentage of his cancer patients.
Olive leaf extract has shown clinical evidence of effectiveness against a wide range of viruses, including AIDS [Bihari], herpes, and cold viruses. It sometimes produces a Herxheimer or pathogen die off symptoms (from effectiveness against bacteria?). There is evidence that it is synergistic (reinforce each other) with Naltrexone. There have been a few case histories of improvement in what were probably arthritis patients and CFIDS patients. The active ingredient is said to be oleuropein or enolate. There has been very little follow up research done on it.
Also it has been found that curcumin in turmeric or curry powder will inhibit several forms of cancer, including melanoma. People who live in India where these spices are eaten, have one tenth the cancer elsewhere. Keep in mind, though, that chemicals in plants can not automatically be trusted simply because they are natural. >
A site is available which shows. foods which are high in one nutrient and low in another (including calories). This last site should be especially useful for a quick list of foods to consider first, or for those who must restrict another nutrient because of a genetic difficulty with absorption or utilization
The very extensive USDA Handbook #8 may be seen here. To access the information you must press “enter” to search, and then divide Kcal into milligrams of potassium. This last table is very comprehensive, is used in search mode, and even lists the amino acids. There are also links in it to PDF types of printouts from the table for individual nutrients available here Just click on the “A” or “W” button for the nutrient you desire.
Take a look at a marvelous site that gives average RDR multiples for most of the essential elements in graphical form from several food groups along with average costs. Vegetables are the winners. (But no copper entry)
You may find useful and easy to use a search for abstracts of medical journal references, “Gateway”.
—-Google’s “scholar search site” is excellent for all types of references.
The author, Charles Weber, has a degree in chemistry and a master’s degree in soil science. He has researched copper and potassium nutrition for over 30 years, primarily a library research, as well as fluoride poison for the last year. He has published articles on allied subjects in; The Journal of Theoretical Biology (1970, 1983), The Journal of Applied Nutrition (1974), Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology (1983), and Medical Hypotheses (1984, 1999, 2007, and 2008).
The author recommends that you seek a second opinion on any medical problems from competent professionals before making any substantive changes in any of your procedures. The author does not use testimonials. While it is not the policy of this author to use testimonials, you may, if you wish, tell of the outcome of health strategies to a site which archives such experiences. Any information, including names and addresses, from readers to this author is held in confidence and not relayed to third parties, nor are cookies used. The privacy laws of the USA are followed. This site does no advertising and is funded solely by the author.
Email = isoptera at mchsi.com — or 828 692 5816 (USA)
—-Abraham GE. 2003 Iodine supplementation markedly increases urinary excretion of fluoride and bromide. Townsend Letter, 238:108-109.
—-Abraham GE. 2004 Serum inorganic iodide levels following ingestion of a tablet form of Lugol solution: Evidence for an enterohepatic circulation of iodine. The Original Internist, 2004; 11(3):29-34.
—-Abraham GE. 2005 The historical background of the Iodine Project. The Original Internist; 12(2):57-66.
—- Abraham GE. 2006 The history of iodine in medicine. Part II: The search for and the discovery of thyroid hormones The Original Internist 13(2);:67-70.
—- W.L. Augenstein WL, et al 1991 Fluoride ingestion in children: a review of 87 cases. Pediatrics 88; 907-912.
; —- Bassin EB Wypij D Davis RB Mittleman MA 2006 Age specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes and Control. 17; 421-428.
—- Bibby BG Zander HA McKelleget M Labunsky B 1946 Preliminary reports on the effect on dental caries of the use of sodium fluoride in a prophylactic cleaning mixture and in a mouthwash.J Dent Res 25(4): 207-211, 1946.
—-Brownstein D. 2005 Clinical experience with inorganic, non-radioactive iodine/iodide. The Original Internist 12(3):105-108. Available at: http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-09/IOD_09.htm.
—- Charlton BG 2008 False, trivial, obvious: Why new and revolutionary theories are typically disrespected. Medical Hypotheses 71; 1-3.
—- Pierre Galleti P Joyet G 1958 Effect of Fluorine on Thyroid Iodine Metabolism and Hyperthyroidism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 18; 1102-1110.
—- John Curnette, et al, 1979 Fluoride-mediated Activation of the Respiratory Burst in Human Neutrophils. Journal of Clinical Investigation 63; 637-647.
—-Eichbaum FW 1946 Biological properties of anacardic acid (O- pentadeca dienylsalicylic acid) and related compounds. General discussion-bactericidal action. Memorias do Instituto Butanen 19 71-86.
—- Ericsson Y Forsman B 1969 Fluoride retained from mouth rinses and dentifrices in preschool children. Caries Research 3; 290-299
—-Eisenbarth SC Colegio OR O’Connor W Jr. Sutterwala FS Flavell RA 2008 Crucial role for Nalp3 inflammasone in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminum adjuvants. Nature 453; 1122-1126.
—- Emsley J, et al 1981 An unexpectedly strong bond: Ab initio calculations and spectroscopic studies of amide fluoride systems. Journal of the American Chemical Society 103; 24-28.
—- Erikson JD 1978 Mortality of Selected Cities with Fluoridated and Non-Fluoridated Water Supplies. New England Journal of Medicine 298; 1112-1116.
—- Fagin D 2008 Second Thoughts about Fluoride. Scientific American 2008, 298; 74–81.
—- Gulati P et al 1993 Studies on the leaching of fluoride in tea infusions. The Science of the Total Environment 138 (1-3); 213-221.
—- Irwin Herskowitz I Norton I 1963 Increased Incidence of Melanotic Tumors Following Treatment with Sodium Fluoride. Genetics 48; 307-310.
—- Jain SK Susheela AK 1987 Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Antibody Formation in Rabbits. Environmental Research 44; 117-125.
—- Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Nomura AM.1985 Breast cancer survival among Hawaiian Japanese and Caucasian women: ten-year rates and survival by place of birth.Am. J. of Epidemiol.;122:571-578.
—- Leone N, et al., 1954 Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply. Public Health Reports 69; 925-936.
—- Lu Y, Sun ZR, Wu LN, Wang X, Lu W, Liub SS 2000 Effect of high fluoride water on intelligence in children. Fluoride 33; 74-78.
—- Masters RD and Coplan M 1998 Water Treatment with Silicofluorides and enhanced lead uptake, Fluoride, Vol. 31, No 3, Aug.
.—- Muellenix, Denbesten, Schunior, Kernan 1995 Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 17; 176.
—- Nagata C, Shimizu H. Risk factors for breast cancer 1996 Findings from comparative studies on Japanese in Japan, Japanese and whites in the United States. Gann Monograph on Cancer Research ;44:51-57.
—-Nutrition Section, Bureau of Public Health.1964 Nutrition in Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 1965.
Orcel P, et al 1990 Stress fractures of the lower limbs in osteoporotic patients treated with fluoride. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 5 Suppl 1:S191-4.
—-Pendrys DG Katz RV 1989 Risk of enamel fluorosis associated with fluoride supplementation, infant formula and fluoride dentifrice use. American Journal of Epidemiology 130; 1199-1208.
—-Reddy GB, Arjun L. Khandare, P. Yadagiri Reddy, G. Shankar Rao, N. Balakrishna and I. Srivalli 2003 Antioxidant Defense System and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Skeletal Fluorosis and in Fluoride-Intoxicated Rabbits Toxicological Sciences 72, 363-368.
—- Roti E Uberti ED 2001 Iodine Excess and Hyperthyroidism. Thyroid 11(5): 493-500.
—-Sharma YD, 1982 Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Collagen Cross-Link Precursors, Toxicological Letters, Vol. 10, pp. 97-100
—-Starr, P., Walcott, H.P., Segall, H.N., et al, 1924 The Effect of Iodin in Exophthalmic Goiter. Arch, Int. Med., 34:355-364.
—-Susheela AK and Mukerjee D, 1981 Fluoride poisoning and the Effect of Collagen Biosynthesis of Osseous and Nonosseous Tissue,” Toxicological European Research, Vol. 3, No.2, pp. 99-104.
—-Taylor A Taylor NC 1965 Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Tumor Growth. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 119; 252.
—-Thompson, W.O., Thompson, P.K., Brailey, A.G., et al, 1930 Prolonged Treatment of Exophthalmic Goiter by Iodine Alone. Arch. Int. Med., 45:481-502.
—-Varner, J.A., et al., 1984 Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium fluoride to rats in drinking water: Alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Medicine, Vol. 4, pp. 151-157.
—- Vishniakova YY, Murav’eva NI. 1966 On the treatment of dyshormonal hyperplasia of mammary glands. [Article in Russian] Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 21(9):19–22.
—- Von Mundy VG 1963 Influence of Fluorine and Iodine on the Metabolism, Particularly on the Thyroid Gland,” Muenchener Medicische Wochenschrift, Vol 105, pp. 182-186.
—-Weisman G et al 1972 Lekocyte proteases and the immunologic release of lysosomal enzymes. American Journal of Pathology 68; 539-569.
—-WHO, World Health Organization. 1996 Iodine deficiency disorders. Fact Sheet No. 121. Geneva
Email to Charles Weber = isoptera at mchsi.com
The Effects of Fluoride on the Brain (2006)
“Fluoride is known to affect mineralizing tissues, but effects upon the developing brain have not been previously considered….Fluoride exposures caused sex-specific and dose-specific behavioral deficits with a common pattern…the severity of the effect on behavior increased directly with plasma fluoride levels and fluoride concentrations in specific brain regions…such associations are important considering that plasma levels in rats…are similar to those reported in humans…
There have been reports from Chinese investigators that high levels of fluoride (3ppm+) affect the nervous system directly without first causing skeletal fluorosis. One study of adult humans found attention affected 100ppm of sodium fluoride, an exposure level potentially relevant to humans because toothpastes contain from 1000 to 1500 ppm fluoride, and mouth rinses contain 230-900 ppm fluoride.”
“In fact, effects on behavior related directly to plasma fluoride levels and the fluoride accumulation in the brain. This contradicts findings from short-term kinetic studies, which found that the adult blood-brain barrier was “relatively impermeable to fluoride” when the whole-brain fluoride levels were measured within one hour. Considering the brain fluoride accumulations found in this study, such “impermeability” does not apply to chronic exposure situations”
“The hyperactivity and cognitive deficits are generally linked with hippocampal damage, and in fact, the hippocampus us considered to be the central processor which integrates inputs from the environment, memory, and motivational stimuli to process behavioral decisions and modify memory. [Delong,G.R.,Autism, amnesia, hippocampus and learning,Neuroscientific and Behavioral Review, 16:653-70, 1992]”
“Hippocampal selectivity was disrupted when adult females were exposed for 6 weeks to 100 ppm fluoride (toothpaste is ten times stronger); hippocampal fluoride levels increased and behavior was affected. Overall, the behavioral changes from fluoride exposure are consistent with interrupted hippocampal development….this is the first laboratory study to demonstrate that central nervous system functional output is vulnerable to fluoride, and that the effects on behavior depend on age at exposure and that fluoride accumulates in brain tissues. Experience with other developmental neurotoxicants prompts expectations that changes in behavioral function will be comparable across species, especially humans and rats. Of course, behaviors per se do not extrapolate, but a generic behavioral disruption as found in this rat study can be indicative of a potential for motor dysfunction, IQ deficits and/or learning disabilities in humans. Substances that accumulate in brain tissues potentiate concerns about neurotoxic risks.”
Investigations into the Role of the Hippocampus
See also: Two Component Functions of the Hippocampal Memory System and On The Neural Mechanisms of Sequence Learning and The Neurobiology of Adaptation [with graphics], and understand that if fluorides severely impact and damage the hippocampus, what is that neurologically and behaviorally doing to the population in terms of their response-ability and perception? These articles will give you a clue, considering that fluorides do not prevent caries, what fluorides are really being used for, and why the U.S. government is pushing it so hard.
The Role of Hippocampal Structures in the Organization of Memory Representations
In addition to its role in extending the persistence of memory representations many investigators have also suggested that the hippocampus is critical for only one kind of memory or one form of memory representation. In humans, there is considerable agreement that the hippocampal region is critical specifically for declarative memory, the capacity for conscious and explicit recollection. By contrast, the acquisition of biases or adaptations to individual items, engaged through repetition of the learning event and revealed typically by implicit measures of memory, is intact following hippocampal damage. To study the representational features of hippocampal-dependent memory in animals we have focused on two characteristic performance capacities associated with declarative memory: the ability to store and remember relationships among perceptually distinct items and the ability to express these memories flexibly in novel situations. Furthermore, as in our studies on the olfactory cortex, this work involves performance in learning and remembering relationships between odor stimuli as a prototypical example of declarative memory processing. In attempting to understand the neural mechanisms that underlie learning-stimulus relations it is important to consider two general ways by which stimulus representations could become bound to one another.
In everyday life surely the distinct aspects of cortical and hippocampal memory processing are intertwined. The prominence of bidirectional connections between cortical and hippocampal structures would make it difficult to have parallel coexisting short-lived and persistent, or fused and associated representations at distinct Ievels of the system. Rather, as indicated in our characterization of neuronal firing properties in the olfactory cortex, interactions among these structures likely results in a unified persistence and form of representation throughout the system in intact animals. How these interactions unfold among components of the cortical hippocampal system should become a main target of interest in studies on the operation of this system.
HEALTH EFFECTS: Fluoride & the Brain
1) Fluoride’s ability to damage the brain represents one of the most active areas of research on fluoride toxicity today.
2) The research on fluoride and the brain has been fueled by 18 human studies from China, India, Iran, and Mexico finding elevated levels of fluoride exposure to be associated with IQ deficits in children. Fluoride’s impact on IQ is exacerbated among children with low-iodine exposure.
3) The impact of fluoride on children’s IQ has been documented even after controlling for children’s lead exposure, iodine exposure, parental education and income status, and other known factors that might impact the results (Rocha-Amador 2007; Xiang 2003 a,b).
4) In addition to IQ studies, 3 studies (Yu 1996; Du 1992; Han 1989) have found that fluoride accumulates in the brain of the fetus, causing damage to cells and neurotransmitters and 1 study (Li 2004) has found a correlation between exposure to fluoride during fetal development and behavioral deficits among neonates.
5) Several recent studies have found that even adult exposures to fluoride may result in central nervous system disturbances, particularly among industrial workers.
5) The findings of neurological effects in fluoride-exposed humans is consistent with, and strengthened by, recent findings from over 40 animal studies published since 1992. As with the studies on humans, the studies on animals have reported an impairment in learning and memory prorcesses among the fluoride-treated groups.
6) The animal studies have also documented considerable evidence of direct toxic effects of fluoride on brain tissue, even at levels as low as 1 ppm fluoride in water (Varner 1998). These effects include:
– reduction in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors;
— reduction in lipid content;
— impaired anti-oxidant defense systems;
— damage to the hippocampus;
— damage to the purkinje cells;
— increased uptake of aluminum;
— formation of beta-amyloid plaques (the classic brain abnormality in Alzheimer’s disease);
— exacerbation of lesions induced by iodine deficiency; and
— accumulation of fluoride in the pineal gland.
Articles of Interest - Fluoride & the Brain: (back to top)
- New Evidence on Fluoride & the Developing Brain – FAN, January 17, 2008
- Excerpts from NRC Report – FAN, March 28, 2006
- Yet more research on fluoride and the brain – FAN Science Watch June 25, 2004
- Fluoride’s effects on the brain – Ellen Connett, Director, Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project, April 19, 2004
- Fluoride Linked to Low IQ, Studies Show - Fluoride Action Network August 25, 2003
- In Harm’s Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility May 2000
- On the Neurotoxicity of Fluoride Phyllis Mullenix, Ph.D., September 14, 1998
- Fluoride & The Brain: An Interview with Dr. Phyllis Mullenix Interview by Paul Connett, PhD, October 18, 1997
- Fluoride & the Pineal Gland IFIN Bulletin, March 2001
- Rat Studies Link Brain Cell Damage With Aluminum and Fluoride in Water Wall Street Journal October 28, 1992
Available Full-Text Papers Online - Fluoride & the Brain: (back to top)
FULL-TEXT (pdf): Varner JA, et al. (1998). Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Research 784: 284-298.
FULL-TEXT (html): Lin Fa-Fu; et al (1991). The relationship of a low-iodine and high-fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter Vol. 7. No. 3. (August).
NOTABLE QUOTES- Fluoride’s Impact on the Brain: (back to top)
“it is apparent that fluorides have the ability to interfere with the functions of the brain.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p 187.
“Studies in animals and human populations suggest that fluoride exposure, at levels that are experienced by a significant proportion of the population whose drinking water is fluoridated, may have adverse impacts on the developing brain. Though no final conclusions may be reached from available data, the findings are provocative and of significant public health concern.”
SOURCE: Schettler T, et al. (2000). Known and suspected developmental neurotoxicants. pp. 90-92. In: In Harms Way – Toxic Threats to Child Development. Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility: Cambridge, MA. (See report)
“Fluorides also increase the production of free radicals in the brain through several different biological pathways. These changes have a bearing on the possibility that fluorides act to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p 186.
“Studies of populations exposed to different concentrations of fluoride should be undertaken to evaluate neurochemical changes that may be associated with dementia. Consideration should be given to assessing effects from chronic exposure, effects that might be delayed or occur late-in-life, and individual susceptibility.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p 187.
“We found that exposure to fluoride (F) in urine was associated with reduced Performance, Verbal, and Full IQ scores before and after adjusting for confounders. The same pattern was observed for models with F in water as the exposure variable…. The individual effect of F in urine indicated that for each mg increase of F in urine a decrease of 1.7 points in Full IQ might be expected.”
SOURCE: Rocha-Amador D, et al. (2007). Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water. Cadernos de Saude Publica 23(Suppl 4):S579-87.
“These negative correlations between IQ and urinary As and between IQ and urinary fluoride indicate that exposure to high levels of As or fluoride, or both, could affect children’s intelligence… This study indicates that exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with neurotoxic effects in children.”
SOURCE: Wang SX, et al. (2007). Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children’s IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(4):643-7.
“In agreement with other studies elsewhere, these findings indicate that children drinking high F water are at risk for impaired development of intelligence.”
SOURCE: Trivedi MH, et al. (2007). Effect of high fluoride water on intelligence of school children in India. Fluoride 40(3):178-183.
“Based on the findings of this study, exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.”
SOURCE: Seraj B, et al. (2006). [Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence]. Journal of Dental Medicine 19(2):80-86.
“A few epidemiologic studies of Chinese populations have reported IQ deficits in children exposed to fluoride at 2.5 to 4 mg/L in drinking water. Although the studies lacked sufficient detail for the committee to fully assess their quality and relevance to U.S. populations, the consistency of the results appears significant enough to warrant additional research on the effects of fluoride on intelligence.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p. 6.
“Conclusion: High fluoride burden has a definite effect on the intellectual and physical development of children.”
SOURCE: Wang S, et al. (2005). Effects of coal burning related endemic fluorosis on body development and intelligence levels of children. Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics 20(9): 897-898.
“In our study, it was shown that the average IQ of children in a fluoride endemic area was somewhat lower than the control, but the result was not significant (P>0.05). The rate of children with “low” IQs, however, was elevated as compared to the control, and this was very statistically significant… Our study showed that, within the fluoride endemic area, the average IQ of children suffering from dental fluorosis is clearly lower than those that show no signs of the disease, and this result is very significant (P <0.01). This IQ difference of 8.12 suggests that children suffering from dental fluorosis might be particularly sensitive to excess fluoride, and that the manifestation of this is not limited to the typical symptoms of fluorosis, but, more seriously, also disrupts intellectual development.”
SOURCE: Li Y, et al. (2003). The effects of endemic fluoride poisoning on the intellectual development of children in Baotou. Chinese Journal of Public Health Management 19(4):337-338.
“Higher drinking water fluoride levels were significantly associated with higher rates of mental retardation (IQ <70) and borderline intelligence (IQ 70-79)… In endemic fluorosis areas, drinking water fluoride levels greater than 1.0 mg/L may adversely affect the development of children’s intelligence.”
SOURCE: Xiang Q, et al. (2003a). Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 36: 84-94.
“As an additional part of our investigation of an association between fluoride in drinking water and children’s intelligence in two villages of Sihong County, Jiangsu Province, China, we have now determined blood lead levels of children in that study… The results show there is essentially no difference between the two villages in blood lead concentrations of the children… These results thus make it very unlikely that the differences in IQ of the children living in Wamiao and Xinhuai are the result of differences in exposure to lead rather than to fluoride.”
SOURCE: Xiang Q, et al. (2003b). Blood lead of children in Wamiao-Xinhuai intelligence study. Fluoride 36: 198-199.
“After controlling by significant confounders, urinary fluoride correlated positively with reaction time and inversely with the scores in visuospatial organization. IQ scores were not influenced by fluoride exposure. An increase in reaction time could affect the attention process, also the low scores in visuospatial organization could be affecting the reading and writing abilities in these children.”
SOURCE: Calderon J, et al. (2000). Influence of fluoride exposure on reaction time and visuospatial organization in children. Epidemiology 11(4): S153.
“In terms of IQ ranking, the high fluoride groups showed significant deficits as compared to control (P<0.01)… Conclusion: When fluoride and iodine levels in excess of national standards for drinking water are present in the same area and ingested together, the harmful effects of fluoride are more pronounced, and the resulting damage compounded.”
SOURCE: Hong F, et al. (2001). A study of fluorine effects on children’s intelligence development under different environments. Chinese Primary Health Care 15: 56-57.
“The IQ of the 60 children in the high-fluoride area was significantly lower than that of the 58 children in the low-fluoride area… More children in the high-fluoride area were in the retardation or borderline categories of IQ than children in the low fluoride area. An inverse relationship was also present between IQ and the urinary fluoride level. Exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may therefore carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.”
SOURCE: Lu Y, et al (2000). Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence of children. Fluoride 33:74-78.
“A study of intelligence quotient (IQ) in China was conducted using Wickler’s Intelligence Quotient Table for preschool children, in 4-7 year-old children, 147 from a district with high level of fluoride and 83 from a control area. High F intake had a significant influence on IQ of preschool children. Operation IQ was mainly affected.”
SOURCE: Wang G, et al. (1996). Research on intelligence quotient of 4-7 year-old children in a district with a high level of fluoride. Endemic Diseases Bulletin 11:60-62.
“In Shanxi Province, China, children living in the endemic fluoride village of Sima located near Xiaoyi City had average IQ significantly lower than children living to the north in the nonendemic village of Xinghua.”
SOURCE: Zhao LB, et al (1996). Effect of high-fluoride water supply on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 29: 190-192.
“The intelligence was measured of 907 children aged 8-13 years living in areas which differed in the amount of fluoride present in the environment. The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of children living in areas with a medium or severe prevalence of fluorosis was lower than that of children living in areas with only slight fluorosis or no fluorosis. The development of intelligence appeared to be adversely affected by fluoride in the areas with a medium or severe prevalence of fluorosis. A high fluoride intake was associated with a lower intelligence.”
SOURCE: Li XS. (1995). Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children. Fluoride 28:189-192.
“We made an investigation in 157 children, aged 12-13, born and grew up in a coal burning pattern endemic fluorosis area and an experiment on excessive fluoride intake in rat. The results showed: (1) Excessive fluoride intake since early childhood would reduce mental work capacity (MWC) and hair zinc content: (2) The effect on zinc metabolism was a mechanism of influence on MWC by excessive fluoride intake…”
SOURCE: Li Y, et al. (1994). [Effect of excessive fluoride intake on mental work capacity of children and a preliminary study of its mechanism] Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 25:188-91.
“An excess of fluoride and a lack of iodine in the same environment has been shown to have a marked effect on child intellectual development, causing a more significant intellectual deficit than lack of iodine alone. The subject group of children from the high fluoride, high iodine zone have an average IQ of 76.67±7.75, which was somewhat less than the control (IQ = 81.67 ±11.9), though the different is not significant (P>0.05). However, the percentage of subject children in the low range (16.67%) is higher than the control, suggesting that a high iodine, high fluoride environment also has a definite negative influence on child intellectual ability.”
SOURCE: Yang Y, et al. (1994). Effects of high iodine and high fluorine on children’s intelligence and the metabolism of iodine and fluorine. Chinese Journal of Pathology 15(5):296-8.
“The results of this study show that the children living in high fluoride areas have lower IQs than the children from the non-endemic area. Also, there were many more children from the endemic area with an IQ score ranking of below the borderline low level as compared to the control; in the endemic area, there were 18 such subject, or 30% of the total, while in the non-endemic area there were only 7, or a rate of 11.5%. The difference between the two groups is significant. The overall distribution shows marked difference, with the scores in control group on average one rank higher than the control… In summary, although diminished intellectual ability can result from a multitude of factors (both innate and acquired) that influence neural development and cell division in the cerebrum, the comparison conducted in this study of two areas where the other environment factors are basically the same shows clear differences in IQ, and it’s probable that this difference is due to a high fluoride environment. It is not clear whether the underlying mechanism is fetal exposure to fluoride resulting from the poisoning of the mother or intake of fluoride after birth (in either case causing a disruption nerve cell development leading to mental deficits); this matter awaits further study.”
SOURCE: Guo XC, et al. (1991). A preliminary exploration of IQ of 7-13 year old pupils in a fluorosis area with contamination from burning coal. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 10:98-100.
“This results of this study indicate that there is significant difference between the intellectual ability of the 7 – 14 year old children from the endemic area and those of the control, and moreover that the average IQ of the children from the endemic area is clearly lower. In the endemic region, the children in the 80-89 range and below make up more than 25% of the total, while in the control range only 18% of the children fall into that range, demonstrating that high fluoride has a direct connection with the intellectual development of children.”
SOURCE: Chen YX, et al. (1991). Research on the intellectual development of children in high fluoride areas. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases. 6(supplement):99-100.
“The significant differences in IQ among these regions suggests that fluoride can exacerbate central nervous lesions and somatic developmental disturbance caused by iodine deficiency. This may be in keeping with fluoride’s known ability to cause degenerative changes in central nervous system cells and to inhibit the activities of many enzymes, including choline enzymes, causing disturbance of the nerve impulse.”
SOURCE: Lin Fa-Fu; et al (1991). The relationship of a low-iodine and high-fluoride environment to subclinical cretinism in Xinjiang. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter Vol. 7. No. 3.
“By testing of the intellectual ability of 447 elementary school students ranging in age from 9 to 10 1/2, it was discovered that both high and low fluoride had an effect on child intelligence. Fluoride levels greater than 2.0 mg/L or less than 0.2 mg/L can disrupt intellectual development.”
SOURCE: Qin LS, Cui SY. (1990). The influence of drinking water fluoride on pupils IQ, as measured by Rui Wen’s standards. Chinese Journal of the Control of Endemic Diseases 5:203-204.
“The effect of a harmful environment containing both high fluoride and low iodine on the development of child mental ability has yet to be reported on. To investigate this question, the authors used the Wechsler Intelligence Test to determine the IQs of a total of 329 eight- to fourteen-year-old children living in nine high fluoride, low iodine villages and seven villages that had only low levels of iodine. We discovered that the IQs of children from high fluoride, low iodine villages were clearly lower than those from the villages with low iodine alone.“
SOURCE: Ren Da-Li. (1989). An investigation of intelligence development of children aged 8-14 years in high-fluoride and low-iodine areas. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 4:251.
HUMAN STUDIES- Fluoride’s Impact on the Developing Brain (Fetuses/Infants): (back to top)
“The effects of excessive fluoride intake during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavioural development and the neurodevelopment toxicity of fluoride were evaluated. Ninety-one normal neonates delivered at the department of obstetrics and gynecology in five hospitals of Zhaozhou County, Heilongjiang province, China were randomly selected from December 2002 to January 2003. The subjects were divided into two groups (high fluoride and control) based on the fluoride content in the drinking water of pregnant women. The results showed that the urinary fluoride levels of mothers from the high fluoride group were higher than those of the control group. There were significant differences in the neonatal behavioral neurological assessment score and neonatal behavioral score between the subjects in endemic areas and the control group. There were also significant differences in the non-biological visual orientation reaction and biological visual and auditory orientation reaction between the two groups. It is concluded that fluoride is toxic to neurodevelopment. Excessive fluoride intake during pregnancy can cause adverse effects on neonatal neurobehavioural development.“
SOURCE: Li J, Yao L, Shao Q-L. (2004). Effects of high-fluoride on neonatal neurobehavioural development. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 23:464-465.
“The levels of neurotransmitters and receptors in brain tissue of aborted fetuses from areas of endemic fluorosis were tested. The results showed that in 10 subjects from a high fluoride area ranging in age from 5 to 7 months, the levels of norepinephrine, 5-hydroxyltryptamine, and α1-receptor were lower and the level of epinephrine higher as compared with levels seen in the control fetuses from a non-fluorosis endemic area; each of these results was statistically significant (P<0.05). Other monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolic products, such as dopamine, 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid showed no significant differences (P>0.05). The results suggest that the accumulation of fluoride in the brain tissue can disrupt the synthesis of certain neurotransmitters and receptors in nerve cells, leading to neural dysplasia or other damage.”
SOURCE: Yu Y, et al. (1996). Changes in neurotransmitters and their receptors in human foetal brain from an endemic fluorosis area. Chinese Journal of Endemiology 15:257-259.
“Fifteen therapeutically aborted fetuses at the 5th-8th gestation month from the endemic fluorosis area were compared with those from the non-endemic area. Stereological study of the brains showed that the numerical density of volume of the neurons and the undifferentiated neuroblasts as well as the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio of the neurons were increased. The mean volume of the neurons was reduced. The numerical density of volume, the volume density and the surface density of the mitochondria were significantly reduced. The results showed that chronic fluorosis in the course of intrauterine fetal life may produce certain harmful effects on the developing brain of the fetus.”
SOURCE: Du L. (1992). [The effect of fluorine on the developing human brain]. Chung-hua Ping Li Hsueh Tsa Chih. 21:218-20.
“Fluoride can pass through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in brain tissue, thus in our study the brain tissue of the fetuses from the fluoride endemic area showed higher fluoride levels than the control. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear. Besides increased amounts of fluoride, the brain tissue of the endemic subjects also showed nerve cells with swollen mitochondria, expanded granular endoplasmic reticula, grouping of the chromatin, damage to the nuclear envelope, a lower number of synapses, fewer mitochondria, microtubules, and vesicles within the synapses, and damage to the synaptic membrane. These changes indicate that fluoride can retard the growth and division of cells in the cerebral cortex. Fewer mitochondria, microtubules, and vesicles within the synapses could lead to fewer connections between neurons and abnormal synaptic function, influencing the intellectual development after birth. These questions await further research.”
SOURCE: Han H, et al. (1989). The effects of fluorine on human fetus. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 4:136-138.
HUMAN STUDIES- Fluoride’s Impact on the Adult Brain: (back to top)
“The results of the NCTB (neurobehavioral core test battery) testing show the exposed groups with significant differences for various indices as compared to the reference standards and the control, with particular deficits in attention, auditory retention, and physical dexterity and acuity as well as abnormal emotional states. This is consistent with the symptoms of endemic fluoride poisoning, suggesting occupational exposure to fluoride has a harmful effect on the higher functions of the central nervous system, negatively influencing both cognitive and autonomic functioning. There is a definite relationship between the damage caused by fluoride and the level of exposure. The correlation analysis shows that, with the exception of visual retention and digit symbol testing, serum fluoride is negatively correlated with all relevant indices, further demonstrating the cause and effect relationship between occupational fluoride exposure and neurobehavioral function; these tests can be used as early indicators to help protect the health of workers exposed to fluoride as part of their jobs.”
SOURCE: Guo Z, et al. (2001). Study on neurobehavioral function of workers occupationally exposed to fluoride. Industrial Health and Occupational Disease 27:346-348.
“Sulfuryl fluoride exposure over the year preceding examination was associated with significantly reduced performance on the Pattern Memory Test and on olfactory testing… CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sulfuryl fluoride exposures may be associated with subclinical effects on the central nervous system, including effects on olfactory and some cognitive functions.”
SOURCE: Calvert GM, et al. (1998). Health effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide exposure among structural fumigation workers. American Journal of Public Health 88:1774-80.
“Although the blood-brain barrier is relatively impermeable to fluoride, it does not pose an absolute barrier and fluoride has the ability to enter the brain. The literature was examined to assess the quality of the evidence for cerebral impairment occurring due to exposure to fluoride from therapeutic or environmental sources. Several surveys of persons chronically exposed to industrial fluoride pollution reported symptoms related to impaired central nervous system functioning with impaired cognition and memory. Examination of individual case reports showed the evidence for aetiological relationships between symptoms and fluoride exposure to be of variable quality. The evidence was seen as being suggestive of a relationship rather than being definitive. The difficulties with concentration and memory described in relation to exposure to fluoride did not occur in isolation but were accompanied by other symptoms of which general malaise and fatigue were central. Possible mechanisms whereby fluoride could affect brain function include influencing calcium currents, altering enzyme configuration by forming strong hydrogen bonds with amide groups, inhibiting cortical adenylyl cyclase activity and increasing phosphoinositide hydrolysis.”
SOURCE: Spittle B. (1994). Psychopharmacology of fluoride: a review. International clinical psychopharmacology 9:79-82.
ANIMAL STUDIES – Fluoride’s Impact on Brain (Behavior/ Learning/ Memory): (back to top)
“Overall, these results suggest that moderate intoxication with sodium fluoride has potentially deleterious effects on learning and memory.”
SOURCE: Chioca LR, et al. (2007). Subchronic fluoride intake induces impairment in habituation and active avoidance tasks in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology Oct 25; [Epub ahead of print]
“The results of the present study indicate that perinatal exposure to sodium fluoride (NaF), at dose levels below those associated with gross malformations and/or overt neurotoxic effects, produces both short and long term sex and dose specific neurobehavioural alterations in rat offspring.”
SOURCE: Bera I, et al. (2007). Neurofunctional effects of developmental sodium fluoride exposure in rats. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 11(4):211-24.
“Additional animal studies designed to evaluate reasoning are needed. These studies must be carefully designed to measure cognitive skills beyond rote learning or the acquisition of simple associations, and test environmentally relevant doses of fluoride.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p. 187.
“In comparison with control rats, the learning and memory ability of the offspring rats was depressed by high fluoride, low iodine, or the combination of high fluoride and low iodine.”
SOURCE: Wang J, et al. (2004). Effects of high fluoride and low iodine on biochemical indexes of the brain and learning-memory of offspring rats. Fluoride 37: 201-208.
“Fluoride intoxicated animals also performed poorly in motor co-ordination tests and maze tests. Inability to perform well increased with higher fluoride concentration in drinking water.”
SOURCE: Bhatnagar M, et al. (2002). Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40: 546-54.
“Administration of sodium fluoride with drinking water produced both behavioural and dental toxicities and not lethality in the present study. A suppression of spontaneous motor activity, a shortening of rota-rod endurance time, a decreased body weight gain and food intake, a suppression of total cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities and dental lesion were observed in test animals.”
SOURCE: Ekambaram P, Paul V. (2001). Calcium preventing locomotor behavioral and dental toxicities of fluoride by decreasing serum fluoride level in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 9(4):141-146.
“The main results showed that the learning capability of mice drinking higher concentration of fluoride presented remarkable deterioration.”
SOURCE: Zhang Z, et al. (2001). [Effects of selenium on the damage of learning-memory ability of mice induced by fluoride]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 30(3):144-6.
“Learning and memory abilities of high-fluoride exposed groups were significantly lower than that of the control group, while the brain ChE activities of high-fluoride exposed groups were significantly higher. Conclusions: High fluoride concentration in drinking water can decrease the cerebral functions of mice. Fluoride is a neurotoxicant.”
SOURCE: Sun ZR, et al. (2000). Effects of high fluoride drinking water on the cerebral functions of mice. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 19: 262-263.
“The main results are as follows: the learning ability of mice drinking high concentration of fluoride presented remarkable deterioration… The results suggested that the impairment on the learning capability induced by fluorosis may be closely related with the pathological changes of synaptic structure in the brain of mice.”
SOURCE: Zhang Z, et al. (1999). [Effect of fluoride exposure on synaptic structure of brain areas related to learning-memory in mice] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 28(4):210-2.
“Sodium fluoride treatment suppressed spontaneous motor activity But no change was observed in the motor coordination of these animals. A suppression of spontaneous motor activity suggests that fluoride has, by a central action, inhibited motivation of these animals to exhibit locomotor behavior.”
SOURCE: Paul V, et al. (1998). Effects of sodium fluoride on locomotor behavior and a few biochemical parameters in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 6: 187–191.
“In this experiment, the freeze response to auditory stimuli in the pups showed significant delay, indicating that relatively high doses of fluoride can negatively influence the development of auditory nerves. Guan Zhizhong et al report that the offspring of rats exposed to fluoride have retarded cerebral development and exhibit changes in neural cell ultrastructure. The results of the present experiment suggest that the effects of high doses of fluoride on the behavior development of the offspring are visible primarily as slight delays in response times, particularly with regard to motor and coordination function and well as muscle strength. The measurement of the thickness of the cerebral cortex of offspring on day 21 revealed that the 25 mg/L group had a significantly thinner cerebral cortex as compared to the control; this histological analysis indicates that fluoride slows the growth of brain cells.”
SOURCE: Wu N, et al. (1995). Research on the abnormal behavior of rats exposed to fluoride. Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases 14(5):271.
“This study demonstrates a link between certain fluoride exposures and behavioral disruption in the rat. The effect on behavior varied with the timing of exposure during CNS development. Behavioral changes common to weanling and adult exposures were different from those after prenatal exposures… Experience with other developmental neurotoxicants prompts expectations that changes in behavioral function will be comparable across species, especially humans and rats… [A] generic behavioral pattern disruption as found in this rat study can be indicative of a potential for motor dysfunction, IQ deficits and/or learning disabilities in humans.”
SOURCE: Mullenix P, et al. (1995). Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 17:169-177.
” When rats were treated 6 hr a day for 5 mo. with HF concentrations of 3, 1, 0.5, and 0.1 mg/m-3, it caused functional changes in the CNS, as shown by the condition reflex method and the measurement of chronaxy. There was inhibition of the blood alkaline phosphatase activity and pathomorphological changes in the CNS, bone and tooth tissues and internal organs. The extent of the changes depended on the concentration of HF. The maximum allowable concentration of HF for the air at working places presently accepted, 0.5 mg/m-3, is too high.”
SOURCE: Vishnevskii VL, El Nichnykh LN. (1969). (A toxicological and morphological characterization of the action of different concentrations of inhaled hydrogen fluoride on the body.). Tr Tsentr Nauchno-Issled Proektn-Konstr In. 2: 143-147.
“General malaise, asthenia, and apathy developed to a marked degree in the monkeys exposed to the BeF2 (beryllium fluoride) aerosol, and in those under the heaviest BeHPO4 exposure. The monkeys retreated to the furthest corner of their cages and paid no attention to light flashed at them. They remained in this withdrawn and listless condition until death. Monkeys which inhaled the BeSO4 aerosol faired best of all.”
SOURCE: Schepers GWH. (1964). Biological action of beryllium: Reaction of the monkey to inhaled aerosols. Industrial Medicine and Surgery 33: 1-16.
ANIMAL STUDIES - Fluoride’s Impact on Brain: (back to top)
“Lipids and phospholipids, phosphohydrolases and phospholipase D, and protein content have been shown to be reduced in the brains of laboratory animals subsequent to fluoride exposure. The greatest changes were found in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphotidylcholine, and phosphotidylserine. Fluorides also inhibit the activity of cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase. Recently, the number of receptors for acetylcholine has been found to be reduced in regions of the brain thought to be most important for mental stability and for adequate retrieval of memories.
It appears that many of fluoride’s effects, and those of the aluminofluoride complexes are mediated by activation of Gp, a protein of the G family. G proteins mediate the release of many of the best known transmitters of the central nervous system. Not only do fluorides affect transmitter concentrations and functions but also are involved in the regulation of glucagons, prostaglandins, and a number of central nervous system peptides, including vasopressin, endogenous opioids, and other hypothalamic peptides. The AlFx binds to GDP and ADP altering their ability to form the triphosphate molecule essential for providing energies to cells in the brain. Thus, AlFx not only provides false messages throughout the nervous system but, at the same time, diminishes the energy essential to brain function.
Fluorides also increase the production of free radicals in the brain through several different biological pathways. These changes have a bearing on the possibility that fluorides act to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Today, the disruption of aerobic metabolism in the brain, a reduction of effectiveness of acetylcholine as a transmitter, and an increase in free radicals are thought to be causative factors for this disease. More research is needed to clarify fluoride’s biochemical effects on the brain.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p. 186.
“Studies of rats exposed to NaF or AlF3 have reported distortion in cells in the outer and inner layers of the neocortex. Neuronal deformations were also found in the hippocampus and to a smaller extent in the amygdala and the cerebellum. Aluminum was detected in neurons and glia, as well as in the lining and in the lumen of blood vessels in the brain and kidney. The substantial enhancement of reactive microglia, the presence of stained intracellular neurofilaments, and the presence of IgM observed in rodents are related to signs of dementia in humans. The magnitude of the changes was large and consistent among the studies.”
SOURCE: National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p. 187.
“In the present study, levels of glutathione and activities of catalase, GSH-PX, and SOD were significantly decreased, whereas lipid peroxide levels were enhanced in the brain of adult rats by treatment with NaF, As2O, or NaF + As2O3, in agreement with earlier reports.”
SOURCE: Chinoy NJ, et al. (2004). Biochemical effects of sodium fluoride and arsenic trioxide toxicity and their reversal in the brain of mice. Fluoride 37: 80-87.
“The histology of the cerebral hemisphere was altered by NaF and/or Arsenic trioxide [As2O3] treatment for 30 days, wherein the effect by As2O3 was greater than by NaF treatment. This result is in agreement with others… The reduced brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity observed in the present study corroborates data of others in rats exposed for three months to arsenic trioxide and in the brain of NaF-treated mice and rats as compared to controls… The DNA and RNA levels in the cerebral hemisphere were significantly lower in NaF and/or As2O3-treated mice in the present study, which could affect brain function. The ingestion of the antidotes vitimans C and E as well as calcium phosphate, either indivdually or in combination, during the 30-day withdrawal period resulted in significant recovery, probably due to the antioxidant-properties of vitamins C and E and modulation of fluoride-induced toxicity in rats by calcium.”
SOURCE: Shah SD, Chinoy NJ. (2004). Adverse effects of fluoride and/or arsenic on the cerebral hemisphere of mice and recovery by some antidotes. Fluoride 37: 162-171.
“Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the brain of the combined high fluoride and low iodine group were significantly higher during and at the end of the 90-day period than in the control group, but the SOD/MDA ratio in this high fluoride and low iodine group was consistently lower than in the control group. These results suggest that [oxidative] stress from high fluoride and low iodine is one of the causes of reduction in learning and memory in offspring rats.”
SOURCE: Wang J, Ge Y, Ning H, Wang S. (2004). Effects of high fluoride and low iodine on biochemical indexes of the brain and learning-memory of offspring rats. Fluoride 37: 201-208.
“Brain protein was decreased by low iodine and even more by the combined interaction of high fluoride and low iodine. The activity of cholinesterase (ChE) in the brain was affected to some extent by high fluoride and low iodine but was especially affected by high fluoride and low iodine together.”
SOURCE: Wang J, et al. (2004). Effects of high fluoride and low iodine on biochemical indexes of the brain and learning-memory of offspring rats. Fluoride 37: 201-208.
“Recently, we have detected the alterations of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in rat brains and PC12 cells affected by fluoride toxicity… [O]xidative stress, including protein oxidation of the receptors and lipid peroxidation in cellular membrane, might be a mechanism of the deficit of the receptors.”
SOURCE: Shan KR, Qi XL, Long YG, Wang YN, Nordberg A, Guan ZZ. (2004). Decreased nicotinic receptors in PC12 cells and rat brains influenced by fluoride toxicity—a mechanism relating to a damage at the level in post-transcription of the receptor genes. Toxicology 200: 169–177.
“Fluorosis had obvious influence on phospholipid and fatty acid composition in brain cells of rats, and its mechanism might be associated with action of lipid peroxidation, and 0.03 mg/L KI (potassium iodine) is the optimal concentration for the antagonistic action with this influence from fluorosis.”
SOURCE: Shen X, Zhang Z, Xu X. (2004). [Influence of combined iodine and fluoride on phospholipid and fatty acid composition in brain cells of rats] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 33:158-61.
“These findings suggest that selective decreases in the number of nAChRs may play an important role in the mechanism(s) by which fluoride causes dysfunction of the central nervous system.”
SOURCE: Chen J, Shan KR, Long YG, Wang YN, Nordberg A, Guan ZZ. (2003). Selective decreases of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in PC12 cells exposed to fluoride. Toxicology 183: 235-42.
“These neurotoxic changes in the brain suggested that there was a direct action of fluoride upon the nerve tissue which was responsible for central nervous system problems such as tremors, seizures, and paralysis indicating brain dysfunction seen at the two highest doses.”
SOURCE: Shashi A. (2003). Histopathological investigation of fluoride-induced neurotoxicity in rabbits. Fluoride 36: 95-105.
“CONCLUSION: Fluoride may go through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in rat hippocampus, and inhibit the activity of cholinesterase.”
SOURCE: Zhai JX, et al. (2003). [Studies on fluoride concentration and cholinesterase activity in rat hippocampus]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 21:102-4.
“Light microscopic study of hippocampal sub-regions demonstrated significant number of degenerated nerve cell bodies in the CA3, CA4 and dentate gyrus(Dg) areas of sodium fluoride administered adult female mice. Ultrastructural studies revealed neurodegenerative characteristics like involution of cell membranes, swelling of mitochondria, clumping of chromatin material etc, can be observed in cell bodies of CA3, CA4 and dentate gyrus (Dg).”
SOURCE: Bhatnagar M, et al. (2002). Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40: 546-54.
“The DNA damage in pallium neurons in rats of the fluoride group was much more serious compared with those of the control group…Sodium fluoride could induce DNA damage and apoptosis in rats brain.”
SOURCE: Chen J, Chen X, Yang K, Xia T, Xie H. (2002). [Studies on DNA damage and apoptosis in rat brain induced by fluoride]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 36: 222-224.
“In order to investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying brain dysfunction caused by chronic fluorosis, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain of rats receiving either 30 or 100 ppm fluoride in their drinking water for 7 months were analyzed in the present study employing ligand binding and Western blotting… Since nAChRs play major roles in cognitive processes such as learning and memory, the decrease in the number of nAChRs caused by fluoride toxicity may be an important factor in the mechanism of brain dysfunction in the disorder.”
SOURCE: Long YG, Wang YN, Chen J, Jiang SF, Nordberg A, Guan ZZ. (2002). Chronic fluoride toxicity decreases the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 24:751-7.
“These results suggest that fluoride enhances oxidative stress in the brain, thereby disturbing the antioxidant defense of rats. Increased oxidative stress could be one of the mediating factors in the pathogenesis of fluoride toxicity in the brain.”
SOURCE: Shivarajashankara YM , et al. (2002). Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems of young rats in chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride 35: 197-203.
“rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, motor cortex, and cerebellum… These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake during the early developing stages of life on the growth, differentiation, and subcellular organization of brain cells in rats.”
SOURCE: Shivarajashankara YM , et al. (2002). Histological changes in the brain of young fluoride-intoxicated rats. Fluoride 35: 12-21.
“The extent of DNA damage in the fluoride + selenium + zinc group was significantly slighter than that in the fluoride group (P < 0.05). It suggested that fluoride and selenium could induce DNA damage in pallium neural cells of rats respectively.”
SOURCE: Chen J, Chen X, Yang K. (2000). [Effects of selenium and zinc on the DNA damage caused by fluoride in pallium neural cells of rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 29: 216-7.
“This study therefore shows that both brain and muscle are affected by fluoride with inhibition of some enzymes associated with free-radical metabolism, energy production and transfer, membrane transport, and synaptic transmission, but with an enhanced activity of XOD.”
SOURCE: Lakshmi Vani M, Pratap Reddy K. (2000). Effects of fluoride accumulation on some enzymes of brain and gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Fluoride 33: 17-26.
“There is a tendency for neurone apoptosis in chronic fluorosis in rats. It is most evident with changes in pathology. It is not likely that only one form of neurone damage exist in the process of chronic fluorosis. There are recessive changes and apoptosis in the process at the same time.”
SOURCE: Lu XH, et al. (2000). Study of the mechanism of neurone apoptosis in rats from the chronic fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 19: 96-98.
“Over uptake of fluoride for a long term could cause potential increase in the level of oxidative stress in the brain tissue.”
SOURCE: Shao Q, Wang Y, Guan Z. (2000). [Influence of free radical inducer on the level of oxidative stress in brain of rats with fluorosis]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 34:330-2.
\“It was concluded that aluminium interferes with the metabolism of the neuronal cytoskeleton and that this interference is potentiated by fluoride.”
SOURCE: van der Voet GB, et al. (1999). Fluoride enhances the effect of aluminium chloride on interconnections between aggregates of hippocampal neurons. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 107:15-21.
“[T]he thickness of post-synaptic density (PSD) was decreased, and the width of synaptic cleft was remarkably increased. The results suggested that the impairment on the learning capability induced by fluorosis may be closely related with the pathological changes of synaptic structure in the brain of mice.”
SOURCE: Zhang Z, et al. (1999). [Effect of fluoride exposure on synaptic structure of brain areas related to learning-memory in mice] [Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 28:210-2.
“The results demonstrate that the contents of phospholipid and ubiquinone are modified in brains affected by chronic fluorosis and these changes of membrane lipids could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease.”
SOURCE: Guan ZZ, Wang YN, Xiao KQ, Dai DY, Chen YH, Liu JL, Sindelar P, Dallner G. (1998). Influence of chronic fluorosis on membrane lipids in rat brain. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 20: 537-542.
“While the small amount of AlF in the drinking water of rats required for neurotoxic effects is surprising, perhaps even more surprising are the neurotoxic results of NaF at the dose given in the present study [1.0 ppm F]… The results of the present study indicate that more intensive neuropathological evaluations of F effects on brain may prove to be of value… In summary, chronic administration of AlF and NaF in the drinking water of rats resulted in distinct morphological alterations in the brain, including effects on neurons and cerebrovasculature.”
SOURCE: Varner JA, et al. (1998). Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: Alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Research 784: 284-298.
“These results indicate that fluoride may penetrate the blood brain barrier, interact with AChE located on cell membranes, and interfere with their physiological functions and thus induce the neurotoxicities.”
SOURCE: Zhao XL, Wu JH. (1998). Actions of sodium fluoride on acetylcholinesterase activities in rats. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 11(1):1-6.
“The metabolism of brain phospholipid might be interfered by fluoride accumulated in brain tissue, which is related with the degeneration of neuron. The changes of brain phospholipid could be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fluorosis.”
SOURCE: Guan Z, Wang Y, Xiao K. (1997). [Influence of experimental fluorosis on phospholipid content and fatty acid composition in rat brain]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 77: 592-6.
“Neuronal abnormalities were observed in the NaF treated animals- especially in the deeper cell layers... The NaF treatment also produced distortions of cells and, in some rats, cell losses could be demonstrated in particular brain regions. Both AlF3 and NaF induced vascular inclusions, although of a different character…”
SOURCE: Issacson R, et al. (1997). Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administration of aluminum and sodium fluoride and their implications for dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 825: 152-166.
“Coenzyme Q content of brain tissue in rats fed with fluorine-containing water decreased at early stage of fluorosis, but increased significantly at late stage. It is speculated that changes in content of coenzyme Q could correlate with changes in free radical levels induced by fluorine.”
SOURCE: Wang Y, Guan Z, Xiao K. (1997). [Changes of coenzyme Q content in brain tissues of rats with fluorosis]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 31: 330-3.
“Excessive fluoride intake decreased 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid and increased norepinephrine in rat brain.”
SOURCE: Li Y, et al. (1994). [Effect of excessive fluoride intake on mental work capacity of children and a preliminary study of its mechanism] Hua Hsi I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 25(2):188-91.
“The results reported here indicate that fluoride has a specific effect on the synthesis of proteins in the brain which may lead to degenerative changes in the form of ballooning degeneration of neurons, various degrees of loss of nisal substance, and changes in the purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. Such changes would provide a plausible explanation for some of the diverse neruological complaints in arms and legs such as numbness, muscle spasms and pains, tenaniform convulsions, and spastic paraplegia, encountered in patients with skeletal fluorosis.”
SOURCE: Shashi A, et al. (1994). Effect of long-term administration of fluoride on levels of protein, free amino acids and RNA in rabbit brain. Fluoride 27: 155-159.
“The neurotoxic effect of fluoride on lipid content of brain was assessed in rabbits during experimental fluorosis… Fluoride exerts an inhibitory effect on the free fatty acids in brain of both sexes. The relevance of these results in experimental fluorosis is discussed.”
SOURCE: Shashi A. (1992). Studies on alterations in brain lipid metabolism following experimental fluorosis. Fluoride 25:77-84.
Fluoride: Top 10 Scientific Developments of 2007
#1: New Evidence on Fluoride & the Developing Brain
1) New Evidence on Fluoride & the Developing Brain
In 2007, the question of how fluoride affects the developing brain gained renewed attention from researchers around the world. Research teams from Brazil, China, India, Italy, Mexico, and the United States conducted important new analyses, including 3 new studies investigating fluoride’s impact on childhood IQ (1a,b,c), and several new animal studies investigating fluoride’s effects on learning, memory, and behavior (1d,e). The studies, which strengthen the concerns expressed by the US National Research Council in 2006, further highlight that it’s not just the teeth, but the brain, that may be impacted by too much fluoride during infancy and childhood. As noted in a review presented this fall by Harvard scientists Philippe Grandjean and Anna Choi:
“In humans, only five substances have so far been documented as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. From this evidence, including our own studies on some of these substances, parallels may be drawn that suggest that fluoride could well belong to the same class of toxicants, but uncertainties remain” (1f).
While uncertainties remain — as is common in science — several of the studies published this year made important advances in addressing some of the shortcomings of previous research. In particular, a study (1a) linking high-fluoride (5 ppm) water to reduced IQ among a group of Mexican children made important steps in the right direction by simultaneously controlling (via multiple regression analysis) for other key factors known to affect IQ, including parent’s education, income, and childhood lead exposure. In addition to controlling for these factors the Mexican researchers helped eliminate a source of bias by “blinding” the psychologist conducting the IQ tests so that the examiner did not know which children had, or did not have, high fluoride exposures.
According to the authors:
“We found that exposure to F (fluoride) in urine was associated with reduced Performance, Verbal, and Full IQ scores before and after adjusting for confounders. The same pattern was observed for models with F in water as the exposure variable…. The individual effect of F in urine indicated that for each mg increase of F in urine a decrease of 1.7 points in Full IQ might be expected.”
In addition to assessing the effect of fluoride on IQ, the Mexican team studied the effect of arsenic as well and found similar results. Based on their data, the authors conclude that
“fluoride and arsenic in drinking water have a potential neurotoxic effect in children. It is urgent that public health measures to reduce exposure levels be implemented. Millions of people around the world are exposed to these pollutants and are therefore potentially at risk for negative impact on intelligence. This risk may be increased where other factors affecting central nervous system development, such as malnutrition and poverty, are also present. The risk is particularly acute for children, whose brains are particularly sensitive to environmental toxins. Furthermore, it would be advisable to reexamine the benefits of fluoride given the documented health risks.”
While some pro-fluoride supporters may attempt to dismiss the results of this study — since the levels of fluoride in the water (5-9 ppm) are higher than the levels added to water in fluoridation programs (0.7-1.2 ppm) — it would be short-sighted to dismiss such important findings on this basis. After all, the study was able to detect a statistically significant effect within a rather small (n=155) group of children. Since individuals vary widely in their sensitivity to chemicals, it is plausible, and indeed likely, that — if fluoride can cause IQ loss at 5 ppm in a small group of children (e.g. hundreds) — it could also cause IQ loss at lower levels in a much larger group of children (e.g. many millions).
Moreover, as noted by Dr. Kathleen Thiessen, a panelist from the National Research Council’s review of fluoride, there is “almost certainly overlaps” in the daily doses ingested by some of the Mexican children in the study and the daily doses ingested by some American children – especially when considering the myriad other sources of fluoride exposure now available in the US.
1a) Rocha-Amador D, et al. (2007). Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water. Cadernos de Saude Publica 23(Suppl 4):S579-87.
1b) Wang SX, et al. (2007). Arsenic and fluoride exposure in drinking water: children’s IQ and growth in Shanyin county, Shanxi province, China. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(4):643-7.
1c) Trivedi MH, et al. (2007). Effect of high fluoride water on intelligence of school children in India. Fluoride 40(3):178-183.
1d) Bera I, et al. (2007). Neurofunctional effects of developmental sodium fluoride exposure in rats. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 11(4):211-24.
1e) Chioca LR, et al. (2007). Subchronic fluoride intake induces impairment in habituation and active avoidance tasks in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology Oct 25; [Epub ahead of print]
1f) Choi A, Grandjean P. (2007). Potentials for developmental fluoride neurotoxicity. XXVII Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research, October 9-12, 2007, Beijing, China.
FAN Science Watch
March 28, 2006
Issue #28: Excerpts from NRC Report
by Michael Connett
As reported by the media, the NRC concluded that EPA’s safety standard for fluoride is not safe and “should be lowered.” According to the NRC, EPA’s “safe” standard (4 ppm) puts a person at increased risk for both tooth and bone damage (“severe dental fluorosis” and bone fracture).
While most of the press coverage so far has focused on NRC’s concerns with teeth and bone, there are many other serious concerns expressed in the NRC report.
To give readers an indication of the other concerns expressed by the NRC, we have reproduced a series of excerpts from the report (see below).
The excerpts detail the various systems in the body (e.g. nervous, endocrine, and immune) that fluoride may damage, and how these effects may be enhanced or mediated through fluoride’s interactive/synergistic effects with other compounds (e.g. iodine deficiencies and aluminum overload).
When one couples the multitude of serious health concerns expressed by NRC, with their uncertainties on what the various safe vs. toxic doses are, it should cause a great deal of concern.
Here, for example, are what two of the NRC panel members – Dr. Kathleen Thiessen and Dr. Robert Isaacson – had to say about the relevance of NRC’s report to the water fluoridation program (see: http://www.portlandtribune.com/archview.cgi?id=34527 )
However, some of the research that is validated by the report suggests that water-fluoridation levels advocated by Hamilton and Ferre may be unhealthy, two members of the NAS panel said in interviews with the Portland Tribune.
NAS panel member Kathy Thiessen, a former senior scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who has studied fluoride for the EPA, said the report showed “the potential is there” that water fluoridation is unhealthy. As for the studies finding that higher levels damage children’s IQ, she said it’s possible water fluoridation levels may have a similar, albeit reduced effect. She said in her personal opinion the research suggests “most people should minimize their fluoride intake” — which includes avoiding fluoridated water.
“I think you can look at most chapters of this report and say, ‘Whoa,’ ” she said. “We have made major strides from previous (looks) at this topic.”
NAS panel member Robert Isaacson, a distinguished professor of neurobehavioral science at the State University of New York in Binghamton, agreed, saying that the possible effects on endocrines and hormones from water-fluoridation are “something that I wouldn’t want to happen to me if I had any say in the matter.”
The report “should be a wake-up call,” he added.
For more information, and news articles, on NRC’s review, see: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/epa/nrc/index.html
Excerpts from: “Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards” (National Research Council, 2006)
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE BRAIN:
“On the basis of information largely derived from histological, chemical, and molecular studies, it is apparent that fluorides have the ability to interfere with the functions of the brain and the body by direct and indirect means.” p187
“A few epidemiologic studies of Chinese populations have reported IQ deficits in children exposed to fluoride at 2.5 to 4 mg/L in drinking water. Although the studies lacked sufficient detail for the committee to fully assess their quality and relevance to U.S. populations, the consistency of the results appears significant enough to warrant additional research on the effects of fluoride on intelligence.” p6 “histopathological changes similar to those traditionally associated with Alzheimer’s disease in people have been seen in rats chronically exposed to AlF.” p178
“Fluorides also increase the production of free radicals in the brain through several different biological pathways. These changes have a bearing on the possibility that fluorides act to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.” p186
“More research is needed to clarify fluoride’s biochemical effects on the brain.” p186
“The possibility has been raised by the studies conducted in China that fluoride can lower intellectual abilities. Thus, studies of populations exposed to different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water should include measurements of reasoning ability, problem solving, IQ, and short- and long-term memory.” p187
“Studies of populations exposed to different concentrations of fluoride should be undertaken to evaluate neurochemical changes that may be associated with dementia. Consideration should be given to assessing effects from chronic exposure, effects that might be delayed or occur late-in-life, and individual susceptibility.” p187
“Additional animal studies designed to evaluate reasoning are needed.” p. 187
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM:
“In summary, evidence of several types indicates that fluoride affects normal endocrine function or response; the effects of the fluoride-induced changes vary in degree and kind in different individuals. Fluoride is therefore an endocrine disruptor in the broad sense of altering normal endocrine function or response, although probably not in the sense of mimicking a normal hormone. The mechanisms of action remain to be worked out and appear to include both direct and indirect mechanisms, for example, direct stimulation or inhibition of hormone secretion by interference with second messenger function, indirect stimulation or inhibition of hormone secretion by effects on things such as calcium balance, and inhibition of peripheral enzymes that are necessary for activation of the normal hormone.” p223
“Some of these [endocrine] effects are associated with fluoride intake that is achievable at fluoride concentrations in drinking water of 4 mg/L or less, especially for young children or for individuals with high water intake. Many of the effects could be considered subclinical effects, meaning that they are not adverse health effects. However, recent work on borderline hormonal imbalances and endocrine-disrupting chemicals indicated that adverse health effects, or increased risks for developing adverse effects, might be associated with seemingly mild imbalances or perturbations in hormone concentrations. Further research is needed to explore these possibilities.” p7
“Further effort is necessary to characterize the direct and indirect mechanisms of fluoride’s action on the endocrine system and the factors that determine the response, if any, in a given individual.” p223
“The effects of fluoride on various aspects of endocrine function should be examined further, particularly with respect to a possible role in the development of several diseases or mental states in the United States.” p224
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE THYROID:“several lines of information indicate an effect of fluoride exposure on thyroid function.” p197 “it is difficult to predict exactly what effects on thyroid function are likely at what concentration of fluoride exposure and under what circumstances.” p197
“Fluoride exposure in humans is associated with elevated TSH concentrations, increased goiter prevalence, and altered T4 and T3 concentrations; similar effects on T4 and T3 are reported in experimental animals..” p218
“In humans, effects on thyroid function were associated with fluoride exposures of 0.05-0.13 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was adequate and 0.01-0.03 mg/kg/day when iodine intake was inadequate.” p218
“The recent decline in iodine intake in the United States (CDC 2002d; Larsen et al. 2002) could contribute to increased toxicity of fluoride for some individuals.” p218
“Intake of nutrients such as calcium and iodine often is not reported in studies of fluoride effects. The effects of fluoride on thyroid function, for instance, might depend on whether iodine intake is low, adequate, or high, or whether dietary selenium is adequate.” p222
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE PINEAL GLAND:
“The single animal study of pineal function indicates that fluoride exposure results in altered melatonin production and altered timing of sexual maturity (Table 8-1). Whether fluoride affects pineal function in humans remains to be demonstrated. The two studies of menarcheal age in humans show the possibility of earlier menarche in some individuals exposed to fluoride, but no definitive statement can be made. Recent information on the role of the pineal organ in humans suggests that any agent that affects pineal function could affect human health in a variety of ways, including effects on sexual maturation, calcium metabolism, parathyroid function, postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer, and psychiatric disease.” p221-22
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON INSULIN SECRETION/DIABETES:
“The conclusion from the available studies is that sufficient fluoride exposure appears to bring about increases in blood glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in some individuals and to increase the severity of some types of diabetes. In general, impaired glucose metabolism appears to be associated with serum or plasma fluoride concentrations of about 0.1 mg/L or greater in both animals and humans. In addition, diabetic individuals will often have higher than normal water intake, and consequently, will have higher than normal fluoride intake for a given concentration of fluoride in drinking water. An estimated 16-20 million people in the U.S. have diabetes mellitus; therefore, any role of fluoride exposure in the development of impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes is potentially significant.” p. 217
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM:
“Nevertheless, patients who live in either an artificially fluoridated community or a community where the drinking water naturally contains fluoride at 4 mg/L have all accumulated fluoride in their skeletal systems and potentially have very high fluoride concentrations in their bones. The bone marrow is where immune cells develop and that could affect humoral immunity and the production of antibodies to foreign chemicals.” p249
“There is no question that fluoride can affect the cells involved in providing immune responses. The question is what proportion, if any, of the population consuming drinking water containing fluoride at 4.0 mg/L on a regular basis will have their immune systems compromised? Not a single epidemiologic study has investigated whether fluoride in the drinking water at 4 mg/L is associated with changes in immune function. Nor has any study examined whether a person with an immunodeficiency disease can tolerate fluoride ingestion from drinking water.” p250
“bone concentrates fluoride and the blood-borne progenitors could be exposed to exceptionally high fluoride concentrations. Thus, more research needs to be carried out before one can state that drinking water containing fluoride at 4 mg/L has no effect on the immune system.” p250
“it is important to consider subpopulations that accumulate large concentrations of fluoride in their bones (e.g., renal patients). When bone turnover occurs, the potential exists for immune system cells and stem cells to be exposed to concentrations of fluoride in the interstitial fluids of bone that are higher than would be found in serum. From an immunologic standpoint, individuals who are immunocompromised (e.g., AIDS, transplant, and bone-marrow-replacement patients) could be at greater risk of the immunologic effects of fluoride.” p 258
“Within 250 ?m of a site of resorption, it is possible to encounter progenitor cells that give rise to bone, blood, and fat. Thus, one must assume that these cells would be exposed to high concentrations of fluoride. At this time, it is not possible to predict what effect this exposure would have on the functioning of skeletal elements, hematopoiesis, and adipose formation.” p115
“It is paramount that careful biochemical studies be conducted to determine what fluoride concentrations occur in the bone and surrounding interstitial fluids from exposure to fluoride in drinking water at up to 4 mg/L, because bone marrow is the source of the progenitors that produce the immune system cells.” p 259
“In addition, studies could be conducted to determine what percentage of immunocompromised subjects have adverse reactions when exposed to fluoride in the range of 1-4 mg/L in drinking water.” p259
FLUORIDE’S INTERACTIVE/SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS (w/ IODINE, ALUMINUM, ETC):
“Intake of nutrients such as calcium and iodine often is not reported in studies of fluoride effects. The effects of fluoride on thyroid function, for instance, might depend on whether iodine intake is low, adequate, or high, or whether dietary selenium is adequate.” p222
“Better characterization of exposure to fluoride is needed in epidemiology studies investigating potential effects. Important exposure aspects of such studies would include the following: collecting data on general dietary status and dietary factors that could influence exposure or effects, such as calcium, iodine, and aluminum intakes.” p72
“Available information now indicates a role for aluminum in the interaction of fluoride on the second messenger system; thus, differences in aluminum exposure might explain some of the differences in response to fluoride exposures among individuals and populations.” p222
“With the increasing prevalence of acid rain, metal ions such as aluminum become more soluble and enter our day-to-day environment; the opportunity for bioactive forms of AlF to exist has increased in the past 100 years. Human exposure to aluminofluorides can occur when a person ingests both a fluoride source (e.g., fluoride in drinking water) and an aluminum source; sources of human exposure to aluminum include drinking water, tea, food residues, infant formula, aluminum-containing antacids or medications, deodorants, cosmetics, and glassware.” p42
“Further research should include characterization of both the exposure conditions and the physiological conditions (for fluoride and for aluminum or beryllium) under which aluminofluoride and beryllofluoride complexes can be expected to occur in humans as well as the biological effects that could result.” p42
“Another possible explanation for increased blood lead concentrations which has not been examined is the effect of fluoride intake on calcium metabolism; a review by Goyer (1995) indicates that higher blood and tissue concentrations of lead occur when the diet is low in calcium. Increased fluoride exposure appears to increase the dietary requirement for calcium (see Chapter 8); in addition, the substitution of tap-water based beverages (e.g., soft drinks or reconstituted juices) for dairy products would result in both increased fluoride intake and decreased calcium intake.” p43
“[G]iven the expected presence of fluoride ion (from any fluoridation source) and silica (native to the water) in any fluoridated tap water, it would be useful to examine what happens when that tap water is used to make acidic beverages or products (commercially or in homes), especially fruit juice from concentrate, tea, and soft drinks. Although neither Urbansky (2002) nor Morris (2004) discusses such beverages, both indicate that at pH < 5, SiF6 2- would be present, so it seems reasonable to expect that some SiF6 2- would be present in acidic beverages but not in the tap water used to prepare the beverages. Consumption rates of these beverages are high for many people, and therefore the possibility of biological effects of SiF62-, as opposed to free fluoride ion, should be examined.” p44
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
“A few human studies suggested that high concentrations of fluoride exposure might be associated with alterations in reproductive hormones, effects on fertility, and developmental outcomes, but design limitations make those studies insufficient for risk evaluation.” p6
“the relationship between fertility and fluoride requires additional study.” p161
FLUORIDE & DOWNS SYNDROME:
“The possible association of cytogenetic effects with fluoride exposure suggests that Down’s syndrome is a biologically plausible outcome of exposure.” p170
“A reanalysis of data on Down’s syndrome and fluoride by Takahashi (1998) suggested a possible association in children born to young mothers. A case-control study of the incidence of Down’s syndrome in young women and fluoride exposure would be useful for addressing that issue. However, it may be particularly difficult to study the incidence of Down’s syndrome today given increased fetal genetic testing and concerns with confidentiality.” 172
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM:
“The numerous fluoridation studies in the past failed to rigorously test for changes in GI symptoms and there are no studies on drinking water containing fluoride at 4 mg/L in which GI symptoms were carefully documented.” p230
“GI effects appear to have been rarely evaluated in the fluoride supplement studies that followed the early ones in the 1950s and 1960s.” p231
“The table suggests that fluoride at 4 mg/L in the drinking water results in approximately 1% of the population experiencing GI symptoms.” p231
“Whether fluoride activates G proteins in the gut epithelium at very low doses (e.g., from fluoridated water at 4.0 mg/L) and has significant effects on the gut cell chemistry must be examined in biochemical studies.” p236
“There are a few case reports of GI upset in subjects exposed to drinking water fluoridated at 1 mg/L. Those effects were observed in only a small number of cases, which suggest hypersensitivity. However, the available data are not robust enough to determine whether that is the case.” p. 250
“Studies are needed to evaluate gastric responses to fluoride from natural sources at concentrations up to 4 mg/L and from artificial sources.” p. 258
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE LIVER:
“It is possible that a lifetime ingestion of 5-10 mg/day from drinking water containing 4 mg/L might turn out to have long-term effects on the liver, and this should be investigated in future epidemiologic studies.” p248
“The effect of low doses of fluoride on kidney and liver enzyme functions in humans needs to be carefully documented in communities exposed to different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water.” p258
FLUORIDE’S EFFECTS ON THE KIDNEY:
“Human kidneys… concentrate fluoride as much as 50-fold from plasma to urine. Portions of the renal system may therefore be at higher risk of fluoride toxicity than most soft tissues.” p236
“Early water fluoridation studies did not carefully assess changes in renal function.” p236
“future studies should be directed toward determining whether kidney stone formation is the most sensitive end point on which to base the MCLG.” p247
“On the basis of studies carried out on people living in regions where there is endemic fluorosis, ingestion of fluoride at 12 mg per day would increase the risk for some people to develop adverse renal effects.” p247
“The effect of low doses of fluoride on kidney and liver enzyme functions in humans needs to be carefully documented in communities exposed to different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water.” p258
FLUORIDE & CANCER:
“Fluoride appears to have the potential to initiate or promote cancers, particularly of the bone, but the evidence to date is tentative and mixed (Tables 10-4 and 10-5). As noted above, osteosarcoma is of particular concern as a potential effect of fluoride because of (1) fluoride deposition in bone, (2) the mitogenic effect of fluoride on bone cells, (3) animal results described above, and (4) pre-1993 publication of some positive, as well as negative, epidemiologic reports on associations of fluoride exposure with osteosarcoma risk.“ p. 286
“Because fluoride stimulates osteoblast proliferation, there is a theoretical risk that it might induce a malignant change in the expanding cell population. This has raised concerns that fluoride exposure might be an independent risk factor for new osteosarcomas.” p109
“Osteosarcoma presents the greatest a priori plausibility as a potential cancer target site because of fluoride’s deposition in bone, the NTP animal study findings of borderline increased osteosarcomas in male rats, and the known mitogenic effect of fluoride on bone cells in culture (see Chapter 5). Principles of cell biology indicate that stimuli for rapid cell division increase the risks for some of the dividing cells to become malignant, either by inducing random transforming events or by unmasking malignant cells that previously were in nondividing states.” p275
Statement from Dr. Phyllis Mullenix on the Neurotoxicity of Fluoride
DR. PHYLLIS J. MULLENIX, Ph.D. is a pharmacologist and toxicologist by training… In the 1980s, Dr. Mullenix was Head of the Toxicology Department at the Forsyth Dental Center, a world renowned dental research institution affiliated with the Harvard Medical School. She was invited to start Forsyth’s Toxicology Department because of her expertise in neurotoxicology. She is presently a Research Associate in Psychiatry at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Boston. Dr. Mullenix’s academic appointments, professional positions held, teaching experience, awards, honors and many published scientific research articles to her name are firstname.lastname@example.org
The first test Dr. Mullenix was asked to perform at the Forsyth Dental Center was a test related to neurotoxicity of fluoride. The person who asked her to perform this test was Dr. Harold C. Hodge, one of the founders of the Society of Toxicology. Since that time, Dr. Mullenix has conducted additional research related to fluoride including one study which is about to be published. She is considered one of the foremost experts on the neurotoxicity of fluoride compounds..
Please join me in welcoming Dr. Mullenix to the ADD-Holistic list! Don’t forget to post your questions after Dr. Mullenix’ first post on Monday.
September 14, 1998
Statement from Phyllis Mullenix, Ph.D.
It was 1982 when fluoride was first brought to my attention as a substance in need of investigation. At that time, I was in the Departments of Psychiatry at Boston’s Children’s Hospital and Neuropathology at the Harvard Medical School. My studies focused on detection procedures for neurotoxicity, and they typically considered a variety of environmental and therapeutic agents, i.e., radiation, lead, amphetamine, phenytoin, nitrous oxide. Dr. John Hein, then Director of Forsyth’s Dental Infirmary for Children in Boston, was interested in neurotoxicity studies and invited me to continue this research at Forsyth and to apply it to substances used in dentistry. Fluoride was prominent on his list.
Five years lapsed before our investigations of fluoride began. The delay was due to time spent on technological improvements, specifically development of a computer pattern recognition system for the objective quantification of behavior in an animal model. In early June of 1986, the Forsyth Dental Center was noted for this achievement in the Wall Street Journal and the Boston Herald, and applications of our research grew. The new technology enabled us to study the clinically recognized neurotoxicity associated with the treatment for childhood leukemia. Simultaneously, we started investigations of fluoride, the “safe and effective” treatment for dental caries.
Initially, the fluoride study sparked little interest, and in fact we were quite anxious to move on to something academically more exciting. Using an animal model developed for the study of dental fluorosis, we expected rats drinking fluoride-treated water would behave the same as matching controls. They did not. The scientific literature led us to believe that rats would easily tolerate 175 ppm fluoride in their drinking water. They did not. Reports in the literature indicated that fluoride would not cross the blood brain barrier. But it did. Prenatal exposure to fluoride was not supposed to permanently alter behavioral outcome. It did. Like walking into quicksand, our confidence that brain function was impervious to fluoride was sinking.
Our 1995 paper in Neurotoxicology and Teratology was the first laboratory study to demonstrate in vivo that central nervous system (CNS) function was vulnerable to fluoride, that the effects on behavior depended on the age at exposure and that fluoride accumulated in brain tissues. The behavioral changes common to weanling and adult exposures were different from those after prenatal exposure. Whereas prenatal exposure dispersed many behaviors as seen in drug-induced hyperactivity, weanling and adult exposures led to behavior-specific changes more related to cognitive deficits. Brain histology was not examined in this study, but we suggested that the effects on behavior were consistent with interrupted hippocampal development (a brain region generally linked with memory).
Establishing a threshold dose for effects on the CNS, in rats or humans, was not the intent of this initial investigation. Yet, one fact relevant to human exposure emerged quite clear. When rats consumed 75-125 ppm and humans 5-10 ppm fluoride in their respective drinking waters, the result was equivalent ranges of plasma fluoride levels. This range is observed with some treatments for osteoporosis, and it is exceeded ten times over, one hour after children receive topical applications of some dental fluoride gels. Thus, humans are being exposed to levels of fluoride we know alters behavior in rats.
We concluded that the rat study flagged potential for motor dysfunction, IQ deficits and/or learning disabilities in humans. Confident as we were, the data were only one piece of the puzzle, the overall picture was still emerging. Soon thereafter we learned of two epidemiological studies (Fluoride, 1995-1996) from China showing IQ deficits in children over-exposed to fluoride via drinking water or soot from burning coal. A recent review (International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 1994) listed case reports of CNS effects in humans excessively exposed to fluoride, information that spans almost 60 years. A common theme appeared in the reported effects: impaired memory and concentration, lethargy, headache, depression and confusion. The same theme was echoed in once classified reports about workers from the Manhatten Project. In all, our rat data seem to fit a consistent picture.
Information linking fluoride and CNS dysfunction continues in 1998.
1) A recent study in Brain Research demonstrated that chronic exposure to fluoride in drinking water of rats compromised neuronal (hippocampal) and cerebrovascular integrity (blood brain barrier) and increased aluminum concentrations in brain tissues.
2) Masters and Coplan have reported (International Journal of Environmental Studies, in press) that silicofluorides in fluoridated drinking water increased levels of lead in children’s blood, a risk factor that predicts higher crime rates, ADD and learning disabilities.
3) Luke at the International Society for Fluoride Research (ISFR) meeting in August reported that fluoride accumulated in the human pineal gland, as much or more so than in bones and teeth, and the pineal gland’s melatonin biosynthesis pathway is affected by fluoride.
4) Also at the ISFR meeting, I reported that the fluorinated steroid (dexamethasone) disrupts behavior in rats to a greater degree than does the nonfluorinated steroid (prednisolone). This finding matched results just completed in a study of children receiving steroids as a part of their treatment for childhood leukemia. Dexamethasone, compared to prednisolone, further reduced IQ, specifically impairing reading comprehension, arithmetic calculation and short-term working memory.
Exposure to fluoride goes well beyond that in our drinking water, toothpastes and mouth rinses. Fluoridation of water dictates that it is in food and processed beverages. Pesticides such as cryolite also increase fluoride content of foods. The trend toward fluorinating pharmaceuticals increases fluoride exposure via medication. Fluoride, in various compounds, plays a heavy role in occupational exposures and for people living in close proximity to industry, i.e., aluminum, steel, brick, glass, petroleum, etc. With exposure so common, we can no longer afford to ignore potential CNS consequences of fluoride.
I would be happy to answer questions about any of the above material.
Phyllis J. Mullenix, Ph.D.
The following are responses from Dr. Mullenix to questions asked by Mark Gold.
September 17, 1998
Response to Questions from Mark Gold
Thank you for the questions and interest in our work. The following are responses to your questions.
1) You have the dose for the Brain Research paper correct. It was essentially 1 ppm fluoride in the drinking water for 52 weeks (not an equivalent dose). This was indeed a very low dose, but one close (or even lower) to that consumed by humans. Note that our study in rats included higher doses, but for shorter periods of time (6 or 20 weeks duration). We realized at the time that the duration of exposure was just as critical as the dose. We proposed studies looking at much lower doses with longer durations, but that was where our research was cut off. Hmmm, indeed.
2) There is no question that fluoride crosses the blood brain barrier, and it is also likely that some neurological effects can be reversed. The key variables to reversibility may involve: 1) the age at exposure- the earlier in brain development when exposed, the more likely changes will not be reversible. 2) the dose and duration of exposure. There are more than one mechanism by which fluoride could be causing problems for the brain. Repeated peak exposures to fluoride for a short duration of time may be a problem if the peaks occur during critical periods of brain development. The mechanism to be suspicious of here is fluoride’s ability to interfere with the G2 phase of the cell cycle. In other words, it can interfere with brain development the same way that x-irradiation does. In contrast, low steady doses of long duration can still be a problem for the brain, even if the brain is well developed. However, the mechanism to be suspicious of here is the accumulation of fluoride. This situation is more likely to be reversible, but the problem is stopping the exposure to allow the body time to rid itself of the deposits so that the brain can recoup. Remember, there are major storage sites for fluoride in the body (bones, teeth and the pineal gland). Every time bones remodel, they kick out fluoride which can then be recirculated and go back into other soft tissues, including the brain. Ridding the body of fluoride can take years, even if you accomplished the difficult task of stopping all sources of fluoride exposure.
3) There are ways to restrict fluoride exposure:
a) drink distilled water or bottled water with known low fluoride content (i.e., Evian)
b) avoid drinking processed beverages made with fluoridated water- colas, etc.
c) avoid drinking tea
d) avoid foods sprayed with cryolite- used often on potatoes (outer peel may have as much as 20 ppm fluoride)
e) avoid foods that labs have confirmed as being high in fluoride- some cereals (fruit loops, wheaties), vegetables grown next to industries- spinach, celery
f) whenever possible, switch from fluorinated to nonfluorinated medications. Besides steroids, antibiotics, anesthetics (methoxyflurane) and antidepressants (prosac and paxil) contain fluorine in chemical structure. When metabolized, they may contribute to fluoride levels in blood.
g) get plenty of calcium in diet (magnesium can help some too).pineal gland, should be a real eye opener for many. I am ill at ease with this enzyme poison (fluoride) being that close to the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis functions in the body. Research is needed immediately, but will it happen for this politically sensitive subject?
4) The link of fluoride with fibromyalgia has not been explored in any depth. The new data showing fluoride’s impact on melatonin biosynthesis, and the high concentrations in the human
I’m sorry if these answers are long, but there is much to say and learn.
Phyllis J. Mullenix, Ph.D.
Fluoride & the Pineal Gland: Study Published in Caries Research
International Fluoride Information Network
March 27, 2001
IFIN Bulletin #269: Fluoride and the pineal gland. Luke published.
Dear All,www.fluoridealert.org/videos.htm), has been published in Caries Research (see abstract below).http://www.fluoridealert.org/fluoride-statement.htm
The wheels of science grind very slowly. Finally, the first half of the work that was the subject of Jennifer Luke’s Ph.D. thesis; presentation in Bellingham, Washington (ISFR conference) in 1998 and a videotaped interview I had with her (see
In my view this work is of enormous importance and could be (or should be) the scientific straw that breaks the camel’s back of fluoridation. Many of our subscribers are familiar with the details but let me repeat them here.
When Luke found out that the pineal gland – a little gland in the center of the brain, responsible for a very large range of regulating activities (it produces serotonin and melatonin) -was also a calcifying tissue, like the teeth and the bones, she hypothesized it would concentrate fluoride to very high levels. The gland is not protected by the blood brain barrier and has a very high perfusion rate of blood, second only to the kidney.
Luke had 11 cadavers analyzed in the UK. As she predicted she found astronomically high levels of fluoride in the calcium hydroxy apatite crystals produced by the gland. The average was 9000 ppm and went as high as 21,000 in one case. These levels are at, or higher, than fluoride levels in the bones of people suffering from skeletal fluorosis. It is these findings which have just been published.
It is the ramifications of these findings which have yet to be published. In the second half of her work she treated animals (Mongolian gerbils) with fluoride at a crack pineal gland research unit at the University of Surrey, UK (so there is no question about the quality of this work). She found that melatonin production (as measured by the concentration of a melatonin metabolite in the urine) was lower in the animals treated with high fluoride levels compared with those treated with low levels.
Luke hypothesizes that one of the four enzymes needed to convert the amino acid tryptophan (from the diet) into melatonin is being inhibited by fluoride. It could be one of the two enzymes which convert tryptophan to serotonin or one of the two which convert serotonin to melatonin.
Significance? Huge. Melatonin is reponsible for regulating all kinds of activities and there is a vast amount of work investigating its possible roles in aging, cancer and many other life processes. The one activity that Luke is particularly interested in is the onset of puberty. The highest levels of melatonin ( produced only at night) is generated in young children. It is thought that it is the fall of these melatonin levels which acts like a biological clock and triggers the onset of puberty. In her gerbil study she found that the high fluoride treated animals were reaching puberty earlier than the low fluoride ones.
We know from recent studies – and considerable press coverage – that young girls are reaching puberty earlier and earlier in the US. Luke is not saying that fluoride (or fluoridation) is the cause but her work waves a very worrying red flag. Fluoride’s role in earlier puberty needs more thorough investigation. Of an interesting historical note, in the Newburgh versus Kingston fluoridation trial (1945-1955), it was found that the girls in fluoridated Newburgh were reaching menstruation, on average, five months earlier than the girls in unfluoridated Kingston, but the result was not thought to be significant at the time (Schlessinger et al, 1956).
When one considers the seriousness of a possible interference by fluoride on a growing child’s pineal gland (and for that matter, elderly pineal glands) it underlines the recklessness of fluoridation. The precautionary principle would say, as would basic common sense, that you don’t take these kind of risks with our children for a benefit which, at best, amounts to 0.6 tooth surfaces out of 128 tooth surfaces in a child’s mouth (Brunelle and Carlos, 1990, Table 6).
I have a copy of Luke’s Ph.D. thesis and would be willing to share it with those who have a serious scientific interest in this issue. The other references cited above can be found in my Statement of Concern which is published on the FAN webpage:
Paper : Original PaperNEW STUDY on F/BRAIN:
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2003 Apr;21(2):102-4.
[Article in Chinese]
Zhai JX, Guo ZY, Hu CL, Wang QN, Zhu QX.
OBJECTIVE: To study the accumulation of fluoride in rat hippocampus and its effect on cholinesterase activity. METHODS: Rats were subchronically exposed to NaF, and fluoride concentration and cholinesterase activity in rat hippocampus were determined. RESULTS: Fluoride concentration in rat hippocampus was significantly correlated with the dosage of fluoride, and there were significant differences among high dosage group [(13.03 +/- 1.79) micro g/g], low dosage group [(9.83 +/- 0.92) micro g/g] and control [(8.27 +/- 1.11) micro g/g], P < 0.01.Acetylcholinesterase activities among three groups [(0.111 +/- 0.031) micro mol/mg, (0.143 +/- 0.025) micro mol/mg, (0.183 +/- 0.027) micro mol/mg] were also significantly different (P < 0.01), which was negatively correlated with fluoride concertration in rat hippocampus (r = -0.700, P < 0.01). The activity of butylcholinesterase in high dosage group [(0.041 +/- 0.010) micro mol/mg] was different from that of control [(0.067 +/- 0.025) micro mol/mg, P < 0.05], but the activity was not significantly related with fluoride concertration in rat hippocampus (r = -0.317, P = 0.094). CONCLUSION: Fluoride may go through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in rat hippocampus, and inhibit the activity of cholinesterase.
PMID: 14761523 [PubMed – in process]
Chen J, et al. (2003). Selective decreases of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in PC12 cells exposed to fluoride. Toxicology 183(1-3):235-42.
Shashi A. (2003). Histopathological investigation of fluoride-induced neurotoxicity in rabbits. Fluoride 36: 95-105.
Xiang Q, et al. (2003). Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Fluoride 36: 84-94.
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Long YG, et al. (2002). Chronic fluoride toxicity decreases the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 24(6):751-7.
Bhatnagar M, et al. (2002). Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40: 546-54.
Chen J, et al. (2002). [Studies on DNA damage and apoptosis in rat brain induced by fluoride] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 36(4):222-224.
Shivarajashankara YM , et al. (2002). Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems of young rats in chronic fluoride intoxication. Fluoride 35: 197-203.
Shivarajashankara YM , et al. (2002). Histological changes in the brain of young fluoride-intoxicated rats. Fluoride 35(1): 12-21.
Ekambaram P, Paul V. (2001). Calcium preventing locomotor behavioral and dental toxicities of fluoride by decreasing serum fluoride level in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 9(4):141-146.
Zhang Z, et al. (2001). [Effects of selenium on the damage of learning-memory ability of mice induced by fluoride]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 30(3):144-6.
Calderon J, et al. (2000). Influence of fluoride exposure on reaction time and visuospatial organization in children. Epidemiology 11(4): S153.
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Lu XH, et al. (2000). Study of the mechanism of neurone apoptosis in rats from the chronic fluorosis. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 19: 96-98.
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Fluoride: lowering IQ’s?
New studies from China show that an excessive intake of fluoride can accumulate in the brain, permanently reducing a child’s intelligence.
Two suburban villages in Shanxi Province in China are very much alike – except for the level of calcium fluoride in their water supply.
Xinghua’s water contains 0.91 parts per million (ppm; equal to mg/L) of fluoride, and 14 per cent of the population have dental fluorosis – mottling, softening, and increased porosity and brittleness of tooth enamel – but no cases of bone fluorosis. In contrast, Sima has fluoride levels four times higher than its neighbour, or 4.12 ppm. In this town, 86 per cent show clear evidence of dental fluorosis, and 9 per cent have clinically diagnosed skeletal fluorosis (Fluoride, 1996; 29: 190-2).
In each village, 160 randomly selected children (excluding those with congenital or acquired diseases not related to fluoride) took a standard IQ test lasting 40 minutes. Each child’s mother had lived in the study village during pregnancy.
The two studies came to extra-ordinary and identical conclusions: exposure to high fluoride lowers intelligence, as measured by IQ test scores (Chin J Control Endem Dis Suppl, 1991).
The mean IQ in high-fluoride Sima was 97.7 whereas, in lower-fluoride Xinghua, it was 105.2 – 7.5 points or 7.7 per cent higher, a statistically significant difference (Fluoride, 1996; 29: 190-2).
Indeed, the entire range of IQs was lower in high-fluoride Sima, giving that village’s bell-shaped IQ curve a distinctly flattened shape (Alive Can J Health Nutr, 1998; 191: 67-8).
Among the 160 children selected for the study, the number of children from Sima with IQs of 69 or below was six times that of those in lower-fluoride Xinghua, and 26 per cent fewer children in Sima had IQ scores of 120 or above (Chung Hua Liu Hsing Ping Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1994; 5: 296-8).
A separate Chinese study looked at the IQs of 907 children aged 8-13 years from four areas of Guizhou Province (Chung Hua Liu Hsing Ping Hsueh Tsa Chih, 1994; 5: 296-8). This study compared the degree of fluorosis in the population, rather than the fluoride content of the water. In some areas, fluorosis was worsened by inhalation of fluoride-containing soot from China’s low-quality coal.
The maximum IQ among the low-fluorosis students was 140, a good score. However, in students with moderate-to-severe fluorosis, the maximum IQ scores were only 110.
The very large difference in mean IQ scores between the high- and low-fluorosis areas appears to be caused in part by exposure to lead as well as fluoride. Another study in a coal-burning area found that excessive fluoride lowered mental work capacity and zinc content of the blood (Hua His I Ko Ta Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 1994; 25: 188-91).
How fluoride harms IQ
In her tests on rats, the results indicated that fluoride is a powerful central nervous system toxin (Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1987; 27: 559-64).
[WDDTY is opposed to animal studies, but we cite these here because of the tendency of pro-fluoridationists to quote studies using rats. This is because of their supposed far higher resistance to toxins than other species. Rats also lack a vomit reflex (Section 2, Health effects: Comparative toxicokinetics, Abstracts from USPHS [Public Health Service] Toxicological Profile on Fluorides, p 16). In other words, rat studies are used to show that fluoride is harmless.]
Before Mullenix, no one had ever considered – much less studied – the subtle effects of fluoride exposure on the developing brain. At the time, she was unaware of the ongoing tests in China.
Although rats are supposed to resist fluoride (which ironically started life as a rat poison), Mullenix’s tests showed that exposure prenatally, as weanlings or adults caused subtle, but real, sex- and dose-specific behavioural deficits with a common pattern. The fluoride accumulating in important regions of the rat brain, especially the hippocampus, increased the more fluoridated water they drank.
The hippocampus is considered to be the central processor which integrates input from the environment, memory and motivational stimuli to produce behavioural decisions and modify memory.
It appears that fluoride accumulates in brain tissue, and younger animals and people are more vulnerable than older ones (Neurotoxicol Teratol, 1995; 17: 169-77). We also know that children excrete fluoride less efficiently than adults and so retain more of it (Aust Trad Med Soc Newslett, 1993/94; Summer).
In these studies, researchers discovered that fluoride caused behavioural problems not unlike hyperactivity as well as learning deficits (Neurotoxicol Teratol, 1995; 17: 169-77). What was also surprising is how little exposure was needed before subtle brain damage was seen. Also, the brain effects were measurable at a lower level of exposure than that required to damage bones.
The researchers also discovered subtle differences between the sexes in the timing of exposure required to cause damage. Males were most sensitive to prenatal exposure while females were more likely to be damaged if exposed as weaned babies or as adults.
The behavioural problems were also different, depending on time of exposure. Rats exposed prenatally tended to be hyperactive whereas those exposed as young rats or adults tended to have cognitive (mental-processing) deficits.
The level of exposure required to cause damage, and the apparent differences between male and female tolerances to exposure corresponded to those found in other studies of hippocampal brain damage.
Although animal studies don’t necessarily apply to humans, they provide important clues concerning the damage wreaked by fluoride in the Chinese towns. Fluoride blood levels in this rat model (0.059-0.640 ppm) were similar to those reported in children one hour after receiving topical fluoride treatment of their teeth.
A few mechanisms have been suggested as to how fluoride affects brain function. These include influencing calcium currents, altering enzyme structure, inhibiting brain hormone activity and increasing phosphoinositide (needed for cell and calcium activation) breakdown (Fluoride, 1996; 29: 187). In guinea pigs, which like primates, including humans, cannot synthesise their own vitamin C, intracellular fluoride alters calcium currents from hippocampal neurons (J Neurosci, 1986; 6: 2915).
The fluoride ion also affects amide binding such as occur in proteins. This may explain how fluoride is able to disrupt key sites in biological systems (J Am Chem Soc, 1981; 103: 24-8; Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 1994; 9: 79-82).
Another study found that fluoride binding induced significant disorders in the structure of the cytochrome-c peroxidase enzyme (Chem Eng News, 1988; Aug 1: 26-42). Indeed, over 100 enzymes are affected by fluoride binding to enzyme cofactors such as magnesium, manganese and phosphate, thus preventing the appropriate coenzyme from activating its enzyme (Lee L, The Enzyme Cure, Tiburon, CA: Future Medicine Publishing, 1998; p 211).
Fluoride from any type of exposure destroys 66 out of 83 known enzymes (Judd GF, Good Teeth Birth to Death, Glendale, AR: Research Publications, 1997; pp 19, 53). Fluoride attacks enzymes at their weakest links – hydrogen bonds surrounding the active site. For every enzyme inhibited or destroyed, a major metabolic function is stopped, as they are required in every bodily process.
The draconian Chinese one-child-per-family rule has given us more evidence of the deadly effects of fluoride on the developing fetal brain. China has persisted with abortions in families who already have one child. In those areas with elevated fluoride and fluorosis due to coal-burning, fluoride has been found in brain tissue obtained from aborted embryos. Stereological and ultramicroscopy studies of this developing brain tissue show poor differentiation of brain nerve cells and delayed brain development (J Fluoros Res Commun, 1991; 138 [in Chinese]).
One of the dangers of fluoride is that this damage to a developing fetus occurs with levels far lower that those considered dangerous to adults. Fluoride effects on intelligence in utero occur at levels not toxic to the mother. In one study, fluoride concentration was higher in a typical mother’s placenta than in her blood (Gedalia et al., 1961; Abstracts from USPHS Toxicological Profile on Fluorides). Umbilical cord levels do not accurately reflect fetal fluoride status, suggesting that the placenta somehow isolates the fluoride as an innate protective measure (J Perinat Med, 1995; 23: 279-82). Eventually, however, enough fluoride crosses the placenta and reduces the available fluoride-binding sites in the newborn (Pediatrics, 1975; 55: 517-22).
The US Public Health Service reported in 1991 that millions of women in ‘optimally’ fluoridated cities ingest from all sources – and expose their embryos and fetuses to – as much as 6.6 mg of fluoride per day (US PHS, Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks, 1991). While the women themselves may not have symptoms or problems, such levels could be deadly to the brain of their developing babies.
Damage as adults
High fluoride exposure appears to weaken mental function in a dose-related manner in adults as well as in children. Declassified 1944 documents show that one year before USPHS epidemiological ‘testing’ of fluoridation was to start in Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Newburgh, New York, the military/industrial complex had already acquired evidence that fluorides affect memory and cognitive skills.
The Manhattan Uranium Project concluded: ‘Clinical evidence suggests . .. . mental confusion, drowsiness and lassitude as the conspicuous features. It seems most likely that the fluoride component is the causative factor’ (US Medical Corps document, 4/29/44). Much of the evidence of adverse fluoride effects was censored out of the document, and later, related documents are ‘missing’ or have been made to disappear by the US government (Griffiths J, Bryson C, Fluoride, teeth and the atomic bomb, Waste Not, 1997; Sept: 1-8).
Researcher Dr Bruce Spittle has cited examples of fluoride affecting adult mental function (Int Clin Psychopharmacol J, 1994; 9: 79-82). As he concluded: ‘The late George L. Waldbott, MD, in 1979 studied 23 persons living within three miles of an enamel factory that emitted hydrogen fluoride into the air. Symptoms included a distinct decline in mental acuity, poorer memory, inability to coordinate thoughts and reduced ability to write. Those living further away from the factory were less affected and had lower urinary fluoride’ (Vet Hum Toxicol, 1979; 21: 4-8).
In 1981 after a fluoride overfeed to the water of Annapolis, Maryland, Waldbott wrote: ‘Six [out of 112 who suffered ill effects] reported deterioration of their mental acuity, lethargy, loss of memory . . .’ (Clin Toxicol, 1981; 18: 537-49).
In another study of 60 aluminium smelter workers, 97 per cent had skeletal fluorosis and 22 per cent had psychiatric disturbances, including depression, mental sluggishness and forgetfulness (Fluoride, 1977; 10: 12-6).
In other studies by Waldbott and colleagues, psychiatric symptoms such as lethargy, memory impairment, and difficulties with concentration and thinking, began after fluoride exposure. This usually occurred with fluoridated drinking water, though three cases involved industrial exposure.
Dr Spittle concludes, ‘There is suggestive rather than definitive evidence that chronic toxicity affecting cerebral functioning can follow exposure to fluoride’ (Int Clin Psychopharmacol, 1994; 9: 79-82).
In light of the findings in China, however, the conclusions are moving toward certainty, and fluoride damage to intelligence may be worse in the UK and US than in China. Millions of embryos and infants receive daily fluoride at doses known to cause crippling skeletal fluorosis in adults (US PHS, Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks, 1991).
Furthermore, fluoride intake may increase two- to fourfold or more during hard physical work in a hot climate – and even more if the water used in cooking and in beverages is also fluoridated. About 3 per cent of the US population drinks at least four litres of water a day, and more where the climate is hotter.
Boiling water evaporates chlorine while concentrating fluoride. If the water contains 4 ppm of fluoride, a person may ingest 16 mg of fluoride a day or more, in addition to the fluoride from other sources like toothpaste, food and air – enough to produce crippling skeletal fluorosis within a few years.
China is sensibly protecting the intelligence of its unborn children by defluoridating its water supply (J Orthomolec Med, 1993; 8: 149-53). We can all learn from their example.
This was adapted from material for an article that first appeared in the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine.
Abstract : The purpose was to discover whether fluoride (F) accumulates in the aged human pineal gland. The aims were to determine (a) F-concentrations of the pineal gland (wet), corresponding muscle (wet) and bone (ash); (b) calcium-concentration of the pineal. Pineal, muscle and bone were dissected from 11 aged cadavers and assayed for F using the HMDS-facilitated diffusion, F-ion-specific electrode method. Pineal calcium was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pineal and muscle contained 297+/-257 and 0.5+/-0.4 mg F/kg wet weight, respectively; bone contained 2,037+/-1,095 mg F/kg ash weight. The pineal contained 16,000+/-11,070 mg Ca/kg wet weight. There was a positive correlation between pineal F and pineal Ca (r = 0.73, p<0.02) but no correlation between pineal F and bone F. By old age, the pineal gland has readily accumulated F and its F/Ca ratio is higher than bone.
Traducción al español
Fluoruro de efecto sobre el cerebro.
April 19, 2004, submission to NRC Committee 19 de abril de 2004, a petición del Comité del NRC
with update con la actualización
19 de abril de 2004
Comité del Consejo Nacional de Investigación:
-A Riesgos toxicológicos de flúor en el agua potable; BEST-K-02-05-A
c/o Susan Martel <email@example.com> c / o Susan Martel <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Ellen Connett Ellen Connett
Red de Acción de Plaguicidas de fluoruro de proyecto
82 Judson Street, Canton NY 13617 82 Judson Street, NY 13617 Cantón
Email: email@example.com Correo electrónico: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: 315-379-9200 Tel: 315-379-9200
Fluoruro de efecto sobre el cerebro.
Durante al menos 2 décadas se han publicado informes sobre el efecto del NaF sobre el cerebro. La inmensa mayoría de estos estudios no se han considerado en todo EE.UU. examen de los efectos del fluoruro. En solo los últimos 10 años numerosos estudios han sido publicados y que han elevado el nivel de preocupación por los efectos de la creciente exposición de fluoruro en el cerebro, especialmente los efectos sobre los más vulnerables en nuestra sociedad: el feto, los niños y los ancianos.
Este gran segmento de los niños muestran signos de sobre exposición al fluoruro por daños visibles a los dientes. Fluorosis dental se sabe que ocurren a una edad en que el cerebro de un niño está experimentando un desarrollo significativo. Si bien sabemos que el flúor atraviesa la placenta, se sabe poco de sus efectos sobre el cerebro fetal humano. En este contexto, un resumen de un estudio de 1992 por la empresa Du (El efecto del flúor sobre el cerebro humano en desarrollo) ha puesto de manifiesto los efectos adversos sobre el cerebro de los fetos abortados entre el 5-8 meses de gestación de una zona endémica de fluorosis en comparación con los de una zona no endémica. Debido a estos factores únicos (sobreexposición al flúor durante el desarrollo cerebral significativa) instamos a la Comisión a considerar seriamente el impacto de fluoruro en el cerebro.
Fluoruro afecta el cerebro, los estudios muestran
Publicado 16 de agosto de 2008 a las 10:09 am
Nueva York – 16 de agosto de 2008 – El Dr. Vyvyan Howard, un toxicólogo del feto, en una reciente entrevista de televisión canadiense que la actual investigación cerebro y fluoruro le convence de que debemos detener la fluoración del agua. Dr. Howard, Presidente de la Sociedad Internacional de Médicos para el Medio Ambiente y el profesor titular, Tóxico-patología del Desarrollo, Universidad de Liverpool, Inglaterra, hicieron tres presentaciones en Toronto Canadá reuniones de la Sociedad Internacional de Investigación de fluoruro, flúor y la Red de Acción de los Ciudadanos para un entorno seguro. Aquí está la evidencia: http://www.FluorideAlert.org/brain
Los estudios realizados en varios países muestran que el coeficiente intelectual de los niños tienden a ser más bajos en alta de agua naturales de fluoruro áreas, dijo Howard. Estos estudios son posibles porque se sabe que el fluoruro afecta a la hormona tiroidea que afecta a la inteligencia y el flúor también es un neurotóxico, dijo Howard. Estos estudios no se han realizado en los países que artificialmente fluoridate del agua, tales como los EE.UU., Reino Unido y Canadá, sino que debe ser, dijo.
Las cuotas de Howard vinieron antes de la publicación de “El fluoruro de Inteligencia y de la Infancia: Un Meta-análisis”, en Investigación Biológica Oligoelementos por Tang et al concluir “Un examen cualitativo de los estudios y encontró un fuerte asociación entre la exposición al fluoruro y de bajo coeficiente intelectual “. (e-publicado antes de imprimir 8/10/08)
“Esta nueva investigación sobre el cerebro, junto con el NRC de la prueba de la tiroides y el fluoruro de daño del hueso y la recomendación del CDC contra el uso de agua fluorada en los preparados para lactantes, así como la Fundación Nacional del Riñón de la retirada de su apoyo a la fluoración hace un caso fuerte para poner fin a 60 años de edad, la fluoración del experimento ” dice el abogado Pablo Beeber, Presidente, el Estado de Nueva York se oponen a la Coalición Fluoruración, Inc.
Fluoruro, sumado a los suministros de agua aparentemente para prevenir las caries, también es en casi todos los EE.UU. no orgánicos de alimentos y bebidas y procesamiento de los residuos de plaguicidas con agua fluorada.
“Hasta ahora ha habido más de 40 estudios con animales que demuestran que el fluoruro puede dañar el cerebro, y no menos de 18 estudios que muestran que el fluoruro reduce cociente intelectual en los niños, y sólo el 2 que no”, dice Paul Connett, PhD, Directora Ejecutiva , Fluor Action Network (FAN).
En 2006, los EE.UU. del Consejo Nacional de Investigación (NRC) del panel de expertos examinó los últimos flúor fluoruro toxicología y concluyó: “Es evidente que los fluoruros tienen la capacidad de interferir con las funciones del cerebro.”
Connett Michael, Director de Proyectos de la Red de Acción de fluoruro de co-autor de un cartel de presentación en la Asociación Internacional de Odontología de Investigación, titulado “El fluoruro y su efecto sobre la inteligencia humana.”, Que identificó 20 estudios ecológicos que pretende una alta asociación entre el flúor y la disminución de la exposición la inteligencia humana.
“El peso de la evidencia de que sobre la mesa ahora dice que, con carácter preventivo, que debemos poner fin a esta práctica (fluoración),” dijo el Dr. Howard.
FAN está ahora trabajando en conseguir un adicional de 7 chino estudios publicados por primera vez en revistas en idioma Inglés a finales de año. Estos estudios adicionales incluyen dos estudios que muestran que el fluoruro puede pasar la placenta y dañar el cerebro del feto, y 5 más estudios para encontrar una reducción de cociente intelectual entre los niños expuestos a un exceso de flúor.
“La Asociación Dental de Canadá dice que no hay pruebas para apoyar las reivindicaciones que el flúor en el agua potable pueden dar lugar a una reducción IQS”, informó la Lethbridge Herald
El Presidente de la Asociación Dental de Ontario muestra más de la ignorancia actual de fluoruro de investigación, aparentemente extendida en la comunidad dental, cuando insistió en que la CTV emisión incorpora flúor en los niños el desarrollo de los dientes para prevenir caries. Esa teoría fue descartada hace mucho tiempo en favor de la ciencia muestra que el fluoruro se encuentra en el esmalte de los dientes por medio de actualidad por sí sola.
Un estudio realizado por Yoder concluyó, “La mayoría de los profesionales dentales encuestadas no tenían conocimiento de la comprensión actual del flúor y disrupcion principal o modo de acción”.
“Ningún niño es, ni nunca fue, el fluoruro deficientes. De hecho, los EE.UU. Centros para el Control de Enfermedades nos dice que 1 / 3 de los EE.UU. son los niños en edad escolar-sobredosis de flúor causa fluorosis dental – manchas de color blanco, amarillo, marrón y / o deshuesadas dientes . Es hora de poner fin a la fluoración, “dice Beeber.
Después de 60 años de fluoración del agua, el CDC señala que el 51% de 6 – 11 años de edad tienen caries y un 40% de 6 – 11 años de edad tienen la fluorosis
Extractos de: “El flúor en el agua potable: una revisión científica de las normas de la EPA” (National Research Council, 2006)
EFECTOS del FLUORURO EN EL CEREBRO:
““Sobre la base de la información derivada de gran histológico, químico, y los estudios moleculares, es evidente que los fluoruros tienen la capacidad de interferir con las funciones del cerebro y el cuerpo por medios directos e indirectos”. P187
“ “Unos pocos estudios epidemiológicos de poblaciones chinas han informado de IQ déficit en los niños expuestos a fluoruro de 2,5 a 4 mg / L en el agua potable. Aunque los estudios carecen de suficiente detalle como para la comisión para evaluar plenamente su calidad y pertinencia de los EE.UU. la población, la consistencia de los resultados parece importante como para justificar la investigación adicional sobre los efectos del flúor sobre la inteligencia. “P6
“Cambios histopatológicos similares a los tradicionalmente asociados con la enfermedad de Alzheimer en las personas se han visto en ratas expuestas crónicamente a ALF.” P178
“Fluoruro también aumentar la producción de radicales libres en el cerebro por medio de diferentes vías biológicas. These changes have a bearing on the possibility that fluorides act to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.” p186 Estos cambios influyen en la posibilidad de que los fluoruros actúan para aumentar el riesgo de desarrollar la enfermedad de Alzheimer “. P186
“Se necesita más investigación para aclarar los efectos bioquímicos de fluoruro en el cerebro”. P186
“La posibilidad ha sido planteada por los estudios realizados en China que el flúor puede disminuir la capacidad intelectual. Así, los estudios de poblaciones expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de fluoruro en el agua potable debe incluir mediciones de la capacidad de razonamiento, resolución de problemas, IQ, ya corto y largo plazo la memoria. “P187
“Los estudios de poblaciones expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de fluoruro debe llevarse a cabo para evaluar los cambios neuroquímicos que puede estar asociada con la demencia. Debería considerarse la posibilidad de evaluar los efectos de la exposición crónica, los efectos que podrían producirse tarde o retraso en la vida, y la susceptibilidad individual “. P187
“. “Los estudios con animales adicionales diseñados para evaluar el razonamiento son necesarios.” P. 187
EFECTOS DEL FLUORURO sobre el sistema endocrino:
“En resumen, varios tipos de pruebas indica que el flúor afecta normal función endocrina o respuesta; los efectos de los cambios inducidos por el flúor varían en grado y naturaleza en diferentes individuos. El fluoruro es un disruptor endocrino en el sentido amplio de la alteración de la función endocrina normal o respuesta, aunque probablemente no en el sentido de imitación de una hormona normal. Los mecanismos de acción aún no se han elaborado y, al parecer, incluyen los dos mecanismos directos e indirectos, por ejemplo, la estimulación directa o inhibición de la secreción de la hormona por interferencia con la segunda función de mensajero, o la estimulación indirecta de la inhibición de la secreción de la hormona por los efectos de cosas tales como el calcio equilibrio, y la inhibición de enzimas periféricas que son necesarias para la activación del proceso normal de la hormona “. p223
“Algunas de estas [endocrino] están asociados con efectos de ingesta de flúor que se puede lograr en las concentraciones de fluoruro en el agua potable de 4 mg / L o menos, sobre todo para los niños pequeños o para personas con alta ingesta de agua. Muchos de los efectos podrían considerarse subclínica efectos, lo que significa que no son efectos adversos para la salud. Sin embargo, recientes trabajos en frontera desequilibrios hormonales y las sustancias químicas que perturban el sistema endocrino indicó que efectos nocivos para la salud, o un mayor riesgo de desarrollar efectos adversos, podrían estar asociados con los desequilibrios en apariencia suave o perturbaciones en las concentraciones de la hormona. Se necesita investigación adicional para explorar estas posibilidades. “P7
““Además del esfuerzo es necesario para caracterizar los mecanismos directos e indirectos de la acción de fluoruro en el sistema endocrino y los factores que determinan la respuesta, en su caso, en un determinado individuo.” P223
“Los efectos del flúor sobre diversos aspectos de la función endocrina debe examinarse aún más, particularmente con respecto a un posible papel en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades o estados mentales en los Estados Unidos”. P224
EFECTOS del FLUORURO SOBRE LA TIROIDES:
““Varias líneas de información indican un efecto de la exposición al fluoruro en la función tiroidea”. P197
“Es difícil predecir exactamente qué efectos sobre la función tiroidea es probable que en la concentración de fluoruro de la exposición y en qué circunstancias”. P197
El fluoruro de exposición en humanos se asocia a concentraciones elevadas de TSH, el aumento de la prevalencia del bocio, alteración y las concentraciones de T4 y T3; efectos similares en la T4 y T3 son reportados en animales de experimentación ..” p218
““En los seres humanos, los efectos sobre la función tiroidea se asocian con la exposición de fluoruro de 0.05-0.13 mg / kg / día, cuando la ingesta de yodo era suficiente y 0.01-0.03 mg / kg / día, cuando la ingesta de yodo es insuficiente”. P218
“La reciente disminución en la ingesta de yodo en los Estados Unidos (CDC 2002d; Larsen et al. 2002) podría contribuir al aumento de la toxicidad del fluoruro para algunas personas”. P218
“La ingesta de nutrientes tales como calcio y yodo a menudo no se reporta en los estudios de los efectos de fluoruro. The effects of fluoride on thyroid function, for instance, might depend on whether iodine intake is low, adequate, or high, or whether dietary selenium is adequate.” p222 Los efectos del flúor sobre la función tiroidea, por ejemplo, podría depender de si la ingesta de yodo es baja, adecuada o alta, o si la dieta de selenio es adecuado. “P222
EFECTOS del FLUORUROSOBRE LA glándula pineal:
“ “El único animal del estudio indica que la función pineal fluoruro exposición alterado resultados en la producción de melatonina y modificado el calendario de la madurez sexual (Tabla 8-1). Si el fluoruro afecta a la función pineal en los seres humanos aún no se ha demostrado. Los dos estudios de la edad de la menarquia en los seres humanos demuestran la posibilidad de la menarquia antes en algunas personas expuestas al flúor, pero no definitiva se pueden hacer. Información reciente sobre el papel del órgano pineal en los seres humanos sugiere que cualquier agente que afecta la función pineal pueden afectar a la salud humana en una variedad de maneras, incluyendo los efectos sobre la maduración sexual, el metabolismo del calcio, la función paratiroidea, la osteoporosis postmenopáusica, el cáncer y la enfermedad psiquiátrica. “p221-22
EFECTOS del FLUORURO SOBRE secreción de insulina / LA DIABETES:
““La conclusión de los estudios disponibles es que la exposición parece suficiente flúor para lograr aumentos de la glucosa en la sangre o tolerancia alterada a la glucosa en algunos individuos, y para aumentar la gravedad de algunos tipos de diabetes. En general, problemas de metabolismo de la glucosa parece estar asociada con suero o plasma de las concentraciones de fluoruro de 0,1 mg / L o mayor en los animales y los seres humanos. Además, las personas con diabetes a menudo tienen más altas de lo normal la ingesta de agua y, en consecuencia, tendrán una mayor ingesta de flúor de lo normal para una determinada concentración de fluoruro en el agua potable. Se estima que 16-20 millones de personas en los EE.UU. tienen diabetes mellitus, por lo tanto, cualquier papel de la exposición de fluoruro en el desarrollo de perjudicar el metabolismo de la glucosa o la diabetes es potencialmente significativo. “P. 217
Efectos del FLUORURO sobre el sistema inmunológico:
“Sin embargo, los pacientes que viven ya sea en una comunidad o fluorada artificialmente una comunidad donde el agua potable contiene fluoruro natural, a 4 mg / L de fluoruro han acumulado en sus sistemas esquelético y potencialmente muy alto concentraciones de flúor en los huesos. La médula ósea donde se desarrollan las células inmunitarias y que podría afectar a la inmunidad humoral y la producción de anticuerpos a los productos químicos “. P249
“No hay duda de que el flúor puede afectar las células involucradas en la prestación de la respuesta inmune. La pregunta es qué proporción, en su caso, de la población consume agua potable que contengan fluoruro de 4,0 mg / L en forma periódica se han comprometido su sistema inmunológico? . Ni un solo estudio epidemiológico ha investigado si el fluoruro en el agua potable a 4 mg / L se asocia con cambios en la función inmunológica. Tampoco tiene algún estudio examinó si una persona con una enfermedad de inmunodeficiencia puede tolerar la ingestión de fluoruro del agua potable “. P250
“Hueso y el flúor se concentra la sangre progenitores pueden estar expuestos a niveles excepcionalmente altos concentraciones de flúor. Por lo tanto, más necesidades de investigación que deben llevarse a cabo antes de que uno puede afirmar que el agua potable contiene fluoruro a 4 mg / L no tiene ningún efecto sobre el sistema inmunológico. “p250
“Es importante tener en cuenta las subpoblaciones que se acumulan grandes concentraciones de fluoruro en los huesos (por ejemplo, pacientes con insuficiencia renal). Cuando se produce el recambio óseo, existe el potencial de células del sistema inmune y las células madre puedan estar expuestos a las concentraciones de flúor en el hueso de los líquidos intersticiales que son más elevados que se encuentran en el suero. From an immunologic standpoint, individuals who are immunocompromised (eg, AIDS, transplant, and bone-marrow-replacement patients) could be at greater risk of the immunologic effects of fluoride.” p 258 Desde un punto de vista inmunológico, las personas que están inmunocomprometidas (por ejemplo, el SIDA, el trasplante, y de médula ósea de sustitución de los pacientes) pueden tener mayor riesgo de los efectos inmunológicos de flúor. “P 258
“Dentro de 250? M de un sitio de la resorción, es posible encontrar células progenitoras que dan lugar a los huesos, sangre y grasa. Por lo tanto, hay que suponer que estas células se exponen a altas concentraciones de flúor. En este momento, no es posible predecir qué efecto tendrá esta exposición sobre el funcionamiento de los elementos esqueléticos, hematopoyesis, adiposo y la formación “. P115
“Es primordial que el cuidado de llevarse a cabo estudios bioquímicos para determinar qué se producen concentraciones de flúor en el hueso que rodea y líquidos intersticiales de la exposición a fluoruro en el agua potable a un máximo de 4 mg / L, ya que la médula ósea es el origen de los progenitores que producen los células del sistema inmune. “p 259
“Además, podría llevarse a cabo estudios para determinar qué porcentaje de sujetos inmunocomprometidos tienen reacciones adversas cuando se expone a fluoruro en el rango de 1-4 mg / L en el agua potable”. P259
Efectos sinérgicos deFLUORURO INTERACTIvo con/ YODO, aluminio, etc:
“La ingesta de nutrientes tales como calcio y yodo a menudo no se reporta en los estudios de los efectos de fluoruro. Los efectos del flúor sobre la función tiroidea, por ejemplo, podría depender de si la ingesta de yodo es baja, adecuada o alta, o si la dieta de selenio es adecuado. “P222
“Una mejor caracterización de la exposición al flúor es necesario en la investigación de estudios epidemiológicos posibles efectos.Exposición de los aspectos importantes de este tipo de estudios se incluyen las siguientes: recogida de datos sobre el estado general de la dieta y factores dietéticos que pueden influir en la exposición o los efectos, tales como el calcio, el yodo, y la ingesta de aluminio “. P72
“La información disponible actualmente indica que hay un papel de aluminio en la interacción de flúor en el segundo sistema de mensajería, por lo que las diferencias en la exposición de aluminio podría explicar algunas de las diferencias en respuesta a las exposiciones de fluoruro entre los individuos y las poblaciones”. P222
“Con la creciente prevalencia de la lluvia ácida, los iones de metales como el aluminio y ser más solubles en entrar en nuestro día a día el medio ambiente; la oportunidad de las formas de AlF bioactivos de existir se ha incrementado en los últimos 100 años. La exposición humana a aluminofluorides puede ocurrir cuando una persona ingiere una fuente de flúor (por ejemplo, el flúor en el agua potable) y una fuente de aluminio; las fuentes de exposición humana al aluminio incluyen agua potable, té, residuos de alimentos, preparados para lactantes, los antiácidos que contienen aluminio o medicamentos, desodorantes, cosméticos, y manufacturas de vidrio. “P42
“42 “Las investigaciones futuras deberían incluir tanto la caracterización de las condiciones de exposición y las condiciones fisiológicas (por fluoruro de aluminio y berilio o) en las que aluminofluoride y beryllofluoride complejos se puede esperar que ocurra en los seres humanos, así como los efectos biológicos que podrían resultar”. P42
“Otra posible explicación para el aumento de las concentraciones de plomo en la sangre que no se ha examinado es el efecto de la ingesta de flúor en el metabolismo del calcio, un examen por Goyer (1995) indica que el aumento de la sangre y los tejidos concentraciones de plomo se producen cuando la dieta es baja en calcio. El aumento de la exposición aparece flúor para aumentar la exigencia de la dieta de calcio (véase el capítulo 8) y, además, la sustitución de agua basado en las bebidas (por ejemplo, refrescos o jugos reconstituido) para los productos lácteos se traduciría en un aumento y disminución de la ingesta de fluoruro de calcio la ingesta “. P43
IVen espera la presencia de iones flúor (fluoración de cualquier fuente) y sílice (nativo al agua) en toda el agua del grifo fluorada, sería útil examinar lo que ocurre cuando el agua del grifo que se utiliza para hacer bebidas ácidas o productos (comerciales o en los hogares), especialmente a partir de concentrado de zumo de fruta, té y refrescos. Aunque ni Urbansky (2002) ni de Morris (2004) discute este tipo de bebidas, tanto indican que a pH <5, SiF6 2 – estarán presentes, por lo que parece razonable esperar que algunos SiF6 2 – estarán presentes en las bebidas ácidas, pero no en el agua utilizada para preparar las bebidas. Las tasas de consumo de estas bebidas son altos para muchas personas y, por tanto, la posibilidad de efectos biológicos de la SiF62-, en contraposición a la libertad de iones fluoruro, debe ser examinado “. P44
EFECTOS del FLUORURO SOBRE EL SISTEMA DE REPRODUCCIÓN:
““Unos pocos estudios en humanos sugiere que altas concentraciones de fluoruro de la exposición puede estar asociada con alteraciones en las hormonas de reproducción, efectos sobre la fertilidad, y los resultados de desarrollo, pero las limitaciones de diseño que la insuficiencia de los estudios de evaluación de riesgo”. P6
FLUORURO y síndrome de Down:
““La posible asociación de efectos citogenética con fluoruro exposición sugiere que el síndrome de Down es biológicamente posible resultado de la exposición.” P170
. “Un reanálisis de los datos sobre el síndrome de Down y fluoruro de Takahashi (1998) sugirió una posible asociación en los niños nacidos de madres jóvenes. Un estudio caso-control de la incidencia de síndrome de Down en mujeres jóvenes y el fluoruro de exposición sería útil para abordar esta cuestión. Sin embargo, puede ser particularmente difícil de estudiar la incidencia de síndrome de Down hoy, dada la mayor fetal se refiere a las pruebas genéticas y con confidencialidad. “172
EFECTOS del FLUORURO SOBRE EL SISTEMA GASTROINTESTINAL:
“La fluoración de numerosos estudios en el pasado no rigurosa prueba de los cambios en los síntomas GI y no existen estudios sobre el agua potable contiene fluoruro a 4 mg / L en la que los síntomas GI fueron cuidadosamente documentados.” P230
Efectos gastro-intestinales se han evaluado rara vez en el suplemento de fluoruro de los estudios que siguieron a los primeros que en los años 1950 y 1960″. P231
“El cuadro sugiere que el fluoruro a 4 mg / L en el agua potable se traduce en aproximadamente el 1% de la población experimenta los síntomas GI.” P231
“Si se activa fluoruro de las proteínas G en el epitelio intestinal en dosis muy bajas (por ejemplo, de agua fluorada en 4,0 mg / L) y tiene efectos significativos en el intestino de células química deben ser examinados en estudios bioquímicos.” P236
“Hay algunos informes de casos de GI malestar en los sujetos expuestos a agua potable fluorada a 1 mg / L. Estos efectos se observaron en sólo un pequeño número de casos, que sugieren hipersensibilidad. However, the available data are not robust enough to determine whether that is the case.” p. Sin embargo, los datos disponibles no son lo suficientemente sólidas como para determinar si ese es el caso. “P. 250
“Se necesitan estudios para evaluar las respuestas a gástrico procedentes de fuentes naturales de fluoruro en concentraciones de hasta 4 mg / L y de fuentes artificiales.” P. 258
EFECTOS del FLUORURO SOBRE EL HÍGADO:
Es posible que toda la vida la ingestión de 5-10 mg / día de agua potable que contenga 4 mg / L pueden llegar a tener efectos a largo plazo sobre el hígado, y esto debe ser investigado en el futuro los estudios epidemiológicos”. P248
“El efecto de bajas dosis de fluoruro en el riñón y las funciones de enzimas hepáticas en el ser humano debe ser cuidadosamente documentadas en las comunidades expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de fluoruro en el agua potable”. P258
FLUORURO y EFECTOS SOBRE EL RIÑÓN:
““Riñones humanos … el fluoruro se concentra tanto como 50 veces del plasma a la orina. Porciones de la insuficiencia renal por lo tanto, podría estar en mayor riesgo de toxicidad de fluoruro que la mayoría de los tejidos blandos “. P236
“Los primeros estudios de la fluoración del agua no evaluan cuidadosamente los cambios en la función renal”. P236
Sobre la base de estudios realizados sobre las personas que viven en regiones donde la fluorosis es endémica, la ingestión de fluoruro en 12 mg por día aumentaría el riesgo para algunas personas a desarrollar efectos adversos renales.” P247
““El efecto de bajas dosis de fluoruro en el riñón y las funciones de enzimas hepáticas en el ser humano deben ser cuidadosamente documentadas en las comunidades expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de fluoruro en el agua potable”. P258
FLUORURO Y CÁNCER:
“El fluoruro parece tener el potencial para iniciar o promover el cáncer, especialmente de los huesos, pero la evidencia hasta la fecha es provisional y mixta. Como se señaló anteriormente, el osteosarcoma es de particular interés como posible efecto del fluoruro a causa de (1) la deposición de flúor en los huesos, (2) el efecto mitogénico del fluoruro en las células óseas (3), los animales los resultados descritos anteriormente, y (4) antes de la publicación de 1993 de algunas positivos como negativos, informes epidemiológicos sobre las asociaciones de flúor con la exposición de riesgo de osteosarcoma. “p. 286
“Dado que el fluoruro estimula la proliferación de osteoblastos, existe un riesgo teórico de que podría inducir un cambio maligno de células en la expansión de la población. Esto ha suscitado la preocupación de que el fluoruro de la exposición podría ser un factor de riesgo independiente para las nuevas osteosarcomas. “P109
“El osteosarcoma se presenta la mayor verosimilitud, a priori, como un posible cáncer de sitio de destino debido a la deposición de flúor en los huesos, los resultados del estudio de animales NTP límite de aumento de osteosarcomas en las ratas macho, y el conocido efecto de mitogénio del fluoruro en células óseas en cultivo (véase Capítulo 5). Principios de la biología celular indican que los estímulos para la rápida división celular aumenta los riesgos para dividir algunas de las células a convertirse en malignas, ya sea por inducción al azar o por la transformación de desenmascarar las células malignas que anteriormente estaban en nondividing estados “. P275